The differences and differences between individuals is a general phenomenon that we always notice among people in all aspects of life. In schools, factories, the army, corporate offices, government offices, and anywhere else a group of individuals gather, we notice large differences between individuals, whether in gross characteristics or mental traits. These differences and differences between individuals drew the attention of scientists and thinkers to develop organized methods and measure them with accurate scientific means.
In the field of industry, there are several differences that we mention:
1- Differences in suitability for work: tests in (information – mechanics – intelligence – psychological test).
2- Differences in the quantity of production: This appears clearly if we compare the quantity of production for a group of workers in one period of time.
Example: the differences in the amount of production of 40 workers who install some electrical tools, and these workers were doing similar work and using similar tools and machines, and all other conditions in terms of place, light and heat were similar, yet we note that there are large differences in the amount of production of these workers
3- Differences in the quality of production: Workers do not only differ in the quantity of their production, but they also differ in the quality of their production.
Example: In an aircraft factory, 50 workers were asked to measure 19 metal pieces of different sizes and shapes using micrometers. Each piece was measured before with accurate devices. The measurements prepared by the workers were compared with the real measurements of these pieces. This indicates that there are significant differences between them in terms of their accuracy in measurement.
4- Differences in benefiting from training: Workers also show many differences in their ability to learn and in the amount they benefit from training. Training The workers usually receive more wages than they deserve because their production during the training period is weak in quantity or level of quality, and they usually destroy a large amount of raw materials, which increases production costs, in addition to that some weak workers need continuous supervision for a long period of time from the trainers This will undoubtedly reduce the amount of production and eventually cause an increase in training expenses.
5- Differences in absence from work and continuity in it: There are differences between workers in terms of not attending regularly to the workplace. There is no doubt that the frequent absence of some workers weakens the amount of production and harms their morale. Absence is due to some of the workers’ personal characteristics, psychological attitudes, and negative habits. In terms of their continuation of work for a long period or in terms of their frequent movement between different jobs, there is no doubt that the continuity of the worker in his work is important, especially that training workers costs the industrial establishment a lot of expenses, and the worker must continue his work for several years after the end of the training so that he can benefit from it and cover the expenses training.
6- Differences in accidents: There are individual differences in the susceptibility to accidents. Some individuals are more likely than others to fall into accidents, and those responsible for most accidents in any factory are usually a small percentage of workers. From this it is clear that there are individual differences in accidents. Industry has a great impact on production, and the importance of taking into account individual differences in the industry is not limited to the economic benefit only, but rather leads to a great benefit in terms of increasing the psychological compatibility of the workers. The failure of the worker leads to his feeling of inadequacy and insecurity, and this leads to his turmoil and anxiety, as well as harming his social relations in general.
Here, the importance of industrial psychology appears:
It shows that workers who excel in a particular job are not necessarily superior in all other jobs to which they are transferred, and vice versa for failed workers. Here, the task of psychologists becomes to estimate the different capabilities of the individual accurately so that workers can be directed to actions that are consistent with their preparations and capabilities. Failed workers in some cases Businesses can, with proper vocational guidance, succeed in some other jobs, and this is of great importance in terms of increasing industrial production and achieving psychological compatibility for workers. The effect of training on individual differences:
It shows the importance of all the factors of heredity and environment in the individual differences.
From this it appears that we do not expect the training programs to make the trainees equal in the ability to work, just as the training does not lead to an improvement in the theoretical capabilities, but rather it provides the individual with special skills and arts that help him to make good use of his theoretical capabilities in the work he is trained on.
Therefore, we aim behind our study of industrial psychology to:
1- Work on vocational guidance for workers in accordance with their capabilities and preparations, which leads to the success of the worker in his work.
2- Work on adapting the worker to work by classifying and analyzing the work to estimate the effort required to perform it and to identify the characteristics necessary for success in it.
Classification, concept, causes and methods of prevention
– Industrial accidents cost the national economy huge sums and countless material and moral losses
– Among its direct costs (medical treatment for the injured, insurance and compensation expenses).
Among its indirect costs (the time lost as a result of the accident, the time spent by the company and its management in research and investigation, and the money that the company may incur in terms of hiring new workers, training them, and repairing damaged machines and materials, and the abuse it causes to the company that may affect production
In which .
The concept and classification of the accident: The accident is everything that happens without being expected to happen, which usually results in harm to people or things, and retaliatory sabotage and natural disasters come out of the scope of work accidents.
Accidents can be classified according to:
1- Type: traffic accidents, mine accidents, aircraft accidents, serious accidents, and other minor accidents
2- Consequences: Accidents that damage machines or products, or cause various injuries to people such as burns, fractures, loss of senses or organs, various deformities, or death.
3- Reasons: Personal accidents, i.e. due to subjective factors such as the worker’s negligence, his mental wandering, his lack of experience, or his inability to control himself.
Or accidents due to material and mechanical factors, such as the fall of things on the worker, the explosion of some materials, the presence of a sticky substance on the ground, or sudden damage to some machines. Physical or mechanical, ranging from 10% to 20%.
4- Avoiding accidents: accidents that can be avoided and others that cannot be avoided, such as sudden damage to a modern machine that proves its validity after testing it.
Causes of work accidents:
1- The psychological and emotional state: the state in which the worker is, so the worker loses control over his nerves, muscles and balance, which makes him vulnerable to accidents.
2- The social status: that the worker is in, and it has been shown that there is a relationship between the worker’s social status and the number of work accidents.
3- Fatigue: It has been found that fatigue has significant effects on the occurrence of some accidents at work, as a result of the stress that results in the worker’s ability to control his muscles and nerves.
4- Negligence: This leads to a large number of work accidents, because the most common accidents are not related to dangerous machinery or materials, but rather to very normal actions such as stumbling, falling, or the wrong use of tools and machines.
5- Factors related to the work environment:
1- Temperature: Excessive temperature leads to a large number of work accidents, because it has a greater impact on the elderly than on the youth.
2- Poor or severe lighting: which leads to the worker feeling uncomfortable and bored, and this in turn leads to work accidents.
3- Poor ventilation: which leads to a decrease in the worker’s productivity as a result of the tension, apathy, boredom and indolence that he experiences, and this leads to accidents.
Ways to prevent work accidents
1- Regulations and laws: These are imposed decisions to regulate the conditions of operation, design, construction, maintenance, inspection, examination and management of industrial tools, the duties of employers and workers, training, medical supervision and first aid.
2- Determining the specifications: on the basis of which certain types of industrial facilities are built in a safe manner and following a safe sanitary process
3- Inspection to ensure the implementation of regulations: This is the prerogative of the competent departments and senior management.
4- Technical research: To find out the properties and nature of harmful substances, to study machinery control devices, to choose breathing masks, to study preventing gas explosions and construction, and to search for the most correct materials and designs for lifting ropes and others.
5- Medical research: It includes the study of the physical, pathological, environmental, psychological effects and physical conditions that lead to accidents.
6- Psychological research: It includes studying the psychological causes that lead to accidents.
7- Statistical research: to find out the types of accidents that occur, the number of each type, the categories of people who fall victim to them, and the reasons that lead to them.
8- Education: It includes introducing the subject of occupational safety and health and securing the work environment in educational curricula.
9 – Insurance for workers: against industrial accidents and encouraging factory owners to raise the level of occupational safety and health methods through training and awareness.
Individual behavior and its compliance with occupational safety and health standards
It can be said that the effectiveness of these elements depends a lot on the implementation of the last topic. Accidents occur due to certain types of individual behavior. The nature of accidents in a particular institution can be determined by knowing what all those working in it show of preventive awareness. This requires the cooperation of groups of legislators, technicians, doctors, psychologists, specialists, and of course the owners Work and workers With the advancement of modern technical methods, we find that there are serious accidents that may occur in industrial facilities, and this is due to errors that may disrupt safety methods (protective devices are removed from their places, inappropriate shoes are used, or workers may feel sick or tired, or their attention may be distracted and they do not remember Nothing and in this case the accident occurs, and therefore it is necessary to take care of the dangers of accidents that occur as a result of habits rooted in human behavior in the factory or facility.
General rules to follow:
1- Try to think and act in an organized manner during work, because in this way you will be convinced of your work and avoid its dangers, as forgetfulness is one of the main causes of accidents.
2- Do not practice anything but your own work that you are good at, and if this work has a specialization, leave it to the specialists in it.
3- You should ask your direct supervisor about the instructions if they are not understood, as this will save you or the group and the factory from many dangers.
4- You must make yourself a soldier in your field of work, report anything unusual (broken stairs – damaged faucets – floors with parts that are not fully isolated or protected – things that appear abnormal in devices or chemicals during operation, this leads to avoiding accidents and losses in production and materials.
5- Always cooperate with the Occupational Safety and Health Authority in your work and implement all useful instructions to improve safety and working conditions.
6- Use and maintain your own protective equipment, put them under testing and cleaning, and test the validity of filters for masks, if any, every specific period of time.
7- Behavior – order – hygiene (appropriate clothing – arranging the workplace and tools – eating in designated places).
8- We must implement a smoking ban in places and factories that include chemicals and flammable materials.
9- Do not block any backup exit ports, as it is your way to safety in case of danger.
Basic guarantees for the success of safety, occupational health, and securing the work environment in the facility:
The prevention program or the occupational safety and health program in the establishment is the work plan that the establishment pursues to achieve the protection of workers from work risks and harms, in application of Article 216-217 of Labor Law No. 12 of 2003
Perhaps the establishment’s difference in size and nature of work is reflected in the details of this program, and because there are basic factors that must be included in the occupational safety and health program in each establishment to ensure that its goal is achieved, and these factors are:
1- Determining the responsibility of the senior management to achieve the programs and the ensuing delineation of responsibilities at various levels in the production and management plan.
2- Take steps to ensure safety, safety and occupational health factors in the workplace.
3- Developing a proper training plan for the workers and achieving supervision over them.
4- The participation of the workers in developing and implementing this program, as the responsibility for production is shared between the management and the workers