Total quality management in educational institutions
Contemporary global challenges necessitate that economic organizations adopt the informed scientific method in facing these challenges and invest effective human energies in consolidating operational and sales performance with more flexibility, efficiency and effectiveness. Characteristic of the data of modern human thought, and this can be seen in industrial institutions, bodies and organizations in general. As for the educational field, those in charge of it seek, through the application of total quality management, to bring about a qualitative development of the work cycle in schools in line with the educational and administrative developments, and keeping pace with developments seeking to achieve excellence in all operations carried out by the educational institution.
First – The concept from an Islamic perspective: The Almighty said (Who created death and life, which of you is best in deed) 2 Blessed be He. And the Almighty said in Surat Yusuf, peace be upon him, when he chose him, the king asked him to give him the treasuries of Egypt because he was more knowledgeable and able to master his work, and he expressed that in the capacity of memorization and knowledge. As a basis for the success of his work and the reason for his quality and mastery (He said, “Make me over the treasuries of the earth. I am a Knowing Guardian”) 55 Yusuf. In another verse, the Almighty mentioned the importance of being strong and trustworthy, and He said (one of them said, “Father, hire him. Indeed, the best of whom you hire is the strong and trustworthy.”) It is noted that the concept of these two qualities revolves around the merits and perfection of work. And he said, peace and blessings be upon him, and completed the delivery: “God loves when one of you does a job to perfect it.” And mastery means quality in its fullest form. Secondly –
The terminological concept of total quality management: There was no specific definition of the concept of total quality management, and the connotations of the words constituting this concept mean the following:
Management: is the ability to influence others to achieve desired goals.
Quality: Means meeting and exceeding customer requirements.
Comprehensive: It means searching for quality in every aspect of work, starting from identifying the beneficiary’s needs and ending with evaluating the beneficiary’s satisfaction.
Comprehensive quality management means, in its entirety, that it is a system that includes a set of integrated intellectual philosophies, statistical tools, and administrative processes used to achieve goals, and raise the level of customer and employee satisfaction alike, through continuous improvement of the institution and with the effective participation of everyone for the benefit of the company and the self-development of its employees. And thus improving the quality of life in society.Jablonsky points out that the concept of total quality management is like other management concepts in which concepts and ideas differ according to the angle of view by this or that researcher, but this formal variation in concepts is almost identical in the purposeful contents as it revolves around The goal that the organization seeks to achieve, which is represented by the consumer through the interaction of all its actors.
school organizational culture
The school organizational culture is mainly subject to two main factors, namely:
1- The general culture of the society.
2- The educational philosophy that stems from the educational goals set by the higher authorities.
Paul Hickman emphasized that school culture lies in the beliefs held by teachers, students, and principals.
The two scholars, Dale and Peterson, defined it as deep examples of values, beliefs, and traditions that were formed during the history of the school.
The truth about total quality: The transformation of the total quality philosophy into a reality in an institution. This philosophy should not remain just a theory without practical application. Therefore, once the concept is understood, it must become a part and a link in the executive management process from the bottom of the pyramid to the top. This is what is known as management. Total quality, which is a process consisting of well-defined stages, and it needs ample time to achieve it, until it becomes familiar to the institution that adopts it, and it is implemented continuously.
Overall quality in educational educational institutions:
Comprehensive quality management in the educational educational field means: performing work in a correct and elaborate manner according to a set of educational standards necessary to raise the level of quality of the educational product at the lowest effort and cost, achieving the educational and educational goals, and the goals of society and filling the labor market’s need for scientifically qualified cadres. Rhodes defines total quality In education, it is an administrative process based on a set of values and derives its energy from information that employs the talents of workers and invests their intellectual abilities in the various levels of organization in a creative manner to ensure the achievement of continuous improvement for the institution. Ahmed Drias defines it as “a method of comprehensive and continuous development in performance that includes all areas of educational work. Achieving student satisfaction, increasing their confidence, and improving the position of the educational institution locally and globally. Rhodes defines it as: it is a strategic management process based on a set of values and derives its energy from information within which we can employ the talents of workers and invest their intellectual capabilities in various levels of organization in a creative way to achieve improvement And from the previous definitions, we conclude that it is necessary to harness all material and human capabilities, and the participation of all agencies, departments and individuals in working as one team, and work in one direction, which is the application of comprehensive quality management standards in the educational educational system, and the evaluation of the extent to which goals are achieved, and the review of executive steps Edward Deming is considered the pioneer of the idea of total quality, as he developed fourteen points that explain what is needed to create and develop a culture of quality, and these points are called “the essence of quality in education” and are summarized as follows:
1 Finding consistency between goals.
2 Adopting the philosophy of total quality.
3 T Little need for inspection.
4 Completion of school work in new ways.
5- Improving quality, productivity, and reducing costs.
6 Lifelong education.
7- Leadership in education.
8 Getting rid of fear.
9 Removing obstacles to success.
10- Creating a culture of quality.
11- Improving operations.
12 help students to succeed.
14- Responsibility. In order for total quality to exist in the field of actual application, there must be five features or characteristics of the successful organization of total quality management:
1- Mobilization of all employees within the institution so that each of them pays his effort towards the strategic goals, each in his own capacity.
2- The developed and integrated understanding of the general picture, especially with regard to the foundations of quality that are directed to satisfying the requirements of the “customer” and focused on the quality of operations and procedures.
3- The organization’s understanding of teamwork.
4- Planning for challenging goals that oblige the organization and its members to a significant improvement in performance quality results.
5- Organized daily management of the institution through the use of effective and effective tools to measure the ability to retrieve information and data (feedback).
Why total quality?
1- To save about 45% of the costs of services that are wasted due to the absence of focus on comprehensive quality.
2- Its application has become an inevitable necessity imposed by the problems arising from the bureaucratic system and the development of the private sector. Customers’ requirements and expectations are constantly increasing.
5- Management requirements to reduce expenses, and the optimal investment of human and material resources.
6- Requirements for workers in terms of style and quality of work.
7- Modifying the culture of educational institutions in line with the method of total quality management, and creating an organizational culture that is compatible with its concepts.
8- The total quality leads to the satisfaction of educational workers, beneficiaries (students), their parents, and society.
9- The method of total quality management, in general, relies on solving problems by taking into account the opinions of groups.
Benefits of applying total quality:
1- Improving the educational process and its outputs on an ongoing basis.
2- Developing leadership and administrative skills to lead the educational institution.
3- Developing the skills, knowledge and attitudes of workers in the educational field.
4- Focusing on developing processes more than defining responsibilities.
5- Continuous work for improvement and reduction From wastage resulting from dropping out of school, or failing.
6- Achieving the satisfaction of the beneficiaries, who are (students, parents, teachers, and the community).
7- The optimal use of available material and human resources.
8- Providing services that satisfy the needs of the internal and external beneficiaries.
9- Providing tools and standards for measuring performance. 10- Reducing costs while achieving educational goals in the social milieu
Total quality and effective active teaching:
1- Student participation with the teacher in planning the subject of the lesson, and implementing it in a way that achieves the principle of participatory management.
2- Applying the principle of prevention is better than cure: which requires performing teaching work from its beginning to its end in a correct manner.
3- Active and effective teaching is based on the principle of competition and motivation Which requires the availability of new ideas and modern knowledge by the teacher and the learner alike.
4 To achieve active and effective teaching when we apply the principle of collaborative participation, the principle of self-participation requires full opportunity for all learners to express their opinion and positive participation in educational learning situations.
The manifestations of active teaching are evident in the following situations: * The inclusion of all teaching pillars in the teaching and learning situations.
* Continuous improvement in teaching methods and educational activities.
* Planning, organizing and analyzing educational and learning activities.
Students understand all aspects of teaching situations and participate in their implementation.
* Effective cooperation between students and each other, and between them and the teacher.
Interdependence and interdependence of all parts of the lesson.
* Participation in the completion of the work, and a serious and confident performance to achieve the objectives of the lesson.
* Avoid making mistakes, not just discovering them.
Bringing about an intellectual and behavioral change among the students in line with the elements of correct educational work.
Adopting behavioral control or self-evaluation in work performance.
* Improvement of continuous teamwork, not intermittent individual work. * Achieving competitiveness and excellence. * Taking into account the wishes of the students and meeting their needs.
Check the quality of all aspects of teaching performance.
* Coherence and integration of the design and implementation of the teaching situation.
Advantages achieved by applying the concept of total quality in teaching:
1- Fulfilling teaching requirements.
2- Providing a scientific educational service that suits the needs of the students.
3 Student participation in work and clarity of their roles and responsibilities.
4 Democratic management of the class without prejudice to the official instructions.
5 Commitment of each party of the educational process to the existing system and its rules.
6 Reducing educational wastage in teaching situations.
7- The existence of a comprehensive and well-thought-out system that reflects positively on students’ behavior.
8 Achieving honest competition among students.
9 Emphasizing the importance and necessity of collective team work.
10- Activate teaching to achieve the desired educational goals.
11 Students’ contribution and participation in decision-making.
12 – Focusing on the nature of operations and activities and improving and developing them on an ongoing basis instead of focusing on results and outputs.
13 Make correct decisions based on real and realistic information and data.
14- Shifting to a culture of perfection instead of rumination, a culture of quality rather than a culture of minimum, and from focusing on teaching to learning and to high expectations on the part of teachers towards their students.
15- Switching from discovering the error at the end of the work to monitoring from the start of the work, and trying to avoid falling into it.
The role of the school in promoting quality in teaching:
• The school should adopt quality as an administrative system and work on developing and documenting this system.
• Forming a team of quality and excellence that includes a team
Spreading a culture of excellence in teaching.
Defining and issuing outstanding performance standards and quality guides.
• Strengthening the democratic principle through the application of the system of suggestions and complaints.
• Renewal and continuous training for teachers.
• Enhancing the spirit of research and development of human resources.
Acquisition of new skills in classroom situations.
• Work to improve education outcomes.
Preparing the leadership personality.
• Establishing a permanent information center and activating the role of education technology.
• Communication with educational and non-educational institutions.
• Training students to extrapolate learning resources.
• Directing students to different thinking questions.
• Giving students the ability to organize time.
• Benefiting from educational experiences locally, in the Arab world and internationally.
Total quality management should not only be applied in a specific aspect of the educational process, but it should also extend to all educational and learning elements:
First, such as tests that must be subjected in their preparation to measures of relative weight, taking into account comprehensiveness, depth, and gradation between ease and difficulty, and that Characterized by honesty and stability and to achieve the desired cognitive goals.
Secondly, classroom management, so we have to pay great attention to the characteristics of the new regular position in the classroom, which is as follows:
1- Students are preoccupied with materials and educational activities of scientific value aimed at arousing their interest and drawing them to the lesson.
2 The establishment of cooperation trends between the teacher and his students, and the goodwill between them.
3- Proper social and moral behavior emanates from students out of respect for the peer group, and as a result of cooperative educational efforts, rather than as a result of the teacher’s dominance over them by instilling fear in them.
4- The students are freed from the artificial factors of anxiety and frustration resulting from the imposition of the will of adults on the group of adolescents.
Requirements for the application of the total quality system in the educational institution: * Full conviction, full understanding and commitment by officials in the educational institution. * Spreading the organizational culture of quality in the educational institution down to the school. * Continuous education and training for all individuals. * Coordination and activating communication between the various departments and sections * The participation of all parties and all working individuals in the efforts to improve the quality of the educational process. * The establishment of an accurate and effective information system for quality management at the central and school levels.
Elements of achieving total quality: 1- Applying quality principles. 2- Everyone’s participation in the continuous improvement process. 3- Defining and clarifying the work procedure, or what is called organizational procedures.
Desired results: The previous principles and elements of achieving quality lead to achieving the primary objective of quality, which is the satisfaction of the beneficiary represented by students, teachers, parents, the local community and the labor market. Also lead to continuous improvement in the educational process elements.
Indicators of the absence of comprehensive quality in educational institutions: 1- Low motivation of students to learn. 2- Low impact of students on school education. 3- Increase in the number of failure and school dropouts. 4- Low motivation of teachers to teach. 5- Refusal to work in this field 6. Increased complaints from all parties. 7- Low satisfaction of parents with the educational attainment of their children. 8- Low satisfaction of society. 9- Low satisfaction of higher educational institutions such as institutes and universities. 10- Low satisfaction of each educational stage with the outputs of the educational stage that preceded it.
Benefits of applying total quality management in education:
1- Control and develop the administrative system in any educational institution as a result of clear roles and precise delineation of responsibilities.
2- Upgrading the level of students in all physical, mental, social, psychological and spiritual aspects.
3- Increasing the competencies of administrators, teachers and workers in educational institutions.
4- Increasing trust and cooperation between educational institutions and society.
5 Providing an atmosphere of understanding, cooperation and sound human relations among all employees of the institution.
6 Increasing awareness and belonging towards the institution by students and the local community.
7 Interdependence and integration between all administrators and workers.
9 The application of the total quality system gives the institution more respect, local appreciation and global recognition.
Principles of total quality: – First – focus on the beneficiary: this means how to make your work of quality that fulfills the wishes of your beneficiary. Second – focus on operations: it means controlling the performance process, not the quality of the product. Third – leadership and management: as there is no successful
institution Without a leader. Fourth – Empowering workers: In the sense of involving them in decision-making: 1 – That is, success does not come from what you know, but it comes from those you know.
2- Quality begins from the inside: in the sense of caring for workers, knowing their needs, and the working conditions surrounding them.
3- The energy stored within them can be detonated through continuous cooperation and involving them in the decision.
Fifth- Comprehensive continuous improvement and development: Continuous improvement and development is based on three Important rules are:
1- Focusing on the customer.
2- Understanding the process.
3. Commitment to quality.
Sixth: Prevention: Applying the principle of prevention is better than cure, which is work that makes the number of errors to a minimum, according to the principle of performing the right work the first time. , and without errors.
Seventh – management by facts: measurement and contrast are the backbone of quality, and they are the indicator that gives information to make the appropriate decision.
Eighth – the total integrated system: it is a set of integrated procedures that lead to a common goal such as: public administration, supervision, educational administration, affairs Administration, equipment.
Ninth – the relationship with suppliers. Means of application: The shift towards total quality management is carried out through the following comparison:
Working with the traditional system, working with the total quality system
* Improvement when needed * Continuous improvement
* Higher quality means higher cost. * Quality
Higher means lower cost.
* Searching for problems related to the results. * Search for problems related to operations, and then address them so that they do not recur.
* Errors are caught and addressed.
* Assuming that errors will not occur, and planning to avoid them.
Errors can be accepted.*
* Acceptance of errors is rejected.
It is important to satisfy the manager.
* It is important to satisfy the customer above all.
* Quality is a function of manufacturing. * Quality is important to every individual.
* The quality department is responsible for quality. Quality is the responsibility of every individual involved in the organization.
How to perform work
Continuous improvement of work performance
1. work performance p
2. work performance o
Focus on the beneficiary
3. work performance o
4. work performance p
Get things done right
Determine the right things
The difference between education and industry
First – Objectives
* Objectives are material: they depend on profit as a measure. The question: How is effectiveness measured in both industry and education?
* Education aims to create a human being characterized by the characteristics of knowledge, dexterity, wisdom and character.
Second – Operations
* It is easy to define industrial processes.
* It is easy to control the specifications of the manufacturing process.
* But in education, the process is interactive between the teacher and the learner.
* But in education, it depends on relationships between people who have behaviors and reactions that differ according to the incentives, goals and feelings of each of them. Therefore, it is difficult to determine certain specifications in the educational currency.
Third, the inputs
* In the industry, the inputs can be controlled.
* But that is difficult in education. Because students are human beings, their performance may vary. The difficulty of controlling the inputs necessitates the difficulty of controlling the quality of the outputs.
Fourth – Embarrassments
* It is easy to control the outputs that lead to customer satisfaction.
* In education, there are several beneficiaries, and it is difficult to determine the level of quality of the outputs, as the first beneficiaries are the students themselves, and they are participants in the learning process.
Means of effective application: Requirements for the success of the application: –
* Successful administrative leadership: among its tasks: strategic planning and change.
* Education and training: awareness, preparation and rehabilitation.
* Effective communication: providing feedback.
* The existence of a quality assurance system.
* The existence of a sub-structure to support the application
* The existence of an appropriate organizational environment: represented by the organizational culture.
Education Standards To find standards for the quality of education, the following questions must be asked: 1- What do you want from your children’s schools? 2- To which schools do you send them? 5- Does the educational reality prove its usefulness? 6- Is it possible to develop the existing situation?
Standards of education The method (Mairn Tripos) for the application of total quality management in education: Mayren proposed a method for the application of total quality management in education, and the quality that schools should provide, according to the following bases:
1 Knowledge: It is the thing that makes the individual understand what he learns, and the relationship This is based on what he previously knew, because knowledge generates in the individual the ability to understand through his experience.
2- Ingenuity: It is what enables the individual to transform knowledge into actual action.
3- Wisdom: It is the ability to distinguish between what is important and what is most important, and thus set priorities.
4- Personality It is a complex of knowledge, ingenuity and wisdom linked to motivation.
* The extent of the student’s cognitive achievement.
* The satisfaction of students and their parents.
* The level of school graduates.
* The level of administrators and teachers.
* The extent of satisfaction of administrators and teachers.
* The services provided by the school.
* The optimal use of human and financial resources.
* Community service
General obstacles to the application of total quality management: –
1- Non-compliance of the senior management.
2 Focusing on specific methods of total quality management and not on the system as a whole.
3- Non-participation of all employees in the application of total quality management.
4- The training does not move to the application stage.
5 Adopting methods and methods of total quality management that are not compatible with the institution’s privacy.
6 Resistance to change, whether from employees or departments.
7 Expect immediate results, not in the long term.