The genesis of quality
The concern for quality is very old. The logo of the American “Juran” Institute – which is concerned with quality – shows two ancient Egyptian pharaohs, one of whom works and the other measures the quality of work. In contemporary history, the British Ministry of Defense – during the Second World War – put in place systems for managing suppliers’ affairs, to ensure the quality of design and manufacture of materials and equipment they supply.
The Islamic heritage is full of things that exhort quality. Like (Say: Do, then Allah will see your work, and His Messenger, and the believers, and you will be returned to the Knower of the Unseen and the Witness, so He will inform you of what Were you doing? (Al-Tawbah, verse 105) . See quality in Islam item 2-1-1 in the first lecture.
In the middle of the twentieth century, the quality revolution began, fueled by intense competition between the Americans and the Japanese. In the early 1950s, the Japanese realized that the inability to sell a product was the strongest warning sign for production managers. While the West took on price competition as a basic entry point to the market, the Japanese focused on the quality revolution. They started it in the late forties after losing the Second World War, and realizing the importance of building a strong industry – supported by high quality – that contributes to building an effective economy. In 1955, the concept of “Company Wide Quality Control (CWQC) appeared in Japan as an integrated general concept that went out for all activities, including marketing, production planning, design, purchasing, engineering, production and distribution to participate in the quality assurance program. The philosophy of this concept is to ensure quality within the product development program through the stages of design and manufacture. And that there is no single department in particular responsible for quality. Rather, it is the responsibility of every individual in the organization from senior management to the lowest worker on the vertical and horizontal scales. (7)
In 1961, Feigenbaum came out with the concept of Total Quality Control, influenced by the aforementioned Japanese concept. He explained that the responsibility for quality rests primarily with the production department. Other activities, including quality control, are secondary responsibilities. And that the focus should be on producing good units – starting – before it is on discovering defective units – through examination – after they appear. This concept took the slogan “Quality from the source”. American factories quickly adopted this philosophy to support their competitiveness with Japanese factories. The Japanese have developed this concept and devoted themselves to the goal and method of “no mistakes”. Instead of the tolerance levels approach which allows percentages of defective units to be accepted within certain tolerance limits. And they succeeded in this because they adopted the philosophy of preventing errors rather than exposing or discovering them, thanks to the developed systems of production and quality control.
The most important foundations of the principle of “comprehensive quality control” in the Japanese concept in particular were represented in:
1- Efficient design of machines equipped with automatic means of error detection.
2- Making each work station a quality control point to reserve any defective unit.
3- Comprehensive and accurate examination of each output unit upon completion.
4- Preparing quick feedback information for the specialized production team about the healthy and defective units.
These four items represent the control levels of the production process as a whole.
5- Every worker has the authority to stop production or even the production line to avoid defective production, and he has the right to deal with it
The problem was as long as it was within the scope of his knowledge.
6- A joint responsibility for each working group to correct its mistakes, as the defective units are returned
to where it was made.
7- Allow enough time to allow proper performance.
8- Training supervisors and workers on how to measure quality and analyze data to determine causes
9- The regularization of supervisors and workers in training programs to improve quality, with quality workshops
To apply quality analysis methods and solve problems. (7)
In 1962, the concept of Quality Circles appeared in Japan, which was adopted by the Japanese Union of Scientists and Engineers (JUSE), citing the quality control method used by the Americans. It consists of small voluntary groups of workers – from 7 to 12 individuals (workers – engineers – examiners – salesmen .. etc.) who meet periodically (mostly weekly) with the supervisor – as a leader or coordinator of the workshop – to discuss and solve practical problems in their field such as quality and cost Productivity. This provides an opportunity for participation, mutual influence and satisfaction of social needs, which contributes to improving performance and quality. The application of this concept has extended – since the early seventies – from Japan to the United States of America and Western Europe.
In the same year (1962), five months after the emergence of the concept of quality rings in Japan, the concept of Zero Defects appeared in the United States of America, within what emerged of zero concepts and foundations for productive development such as (Zero Stop – Zero Stock). The No Errors concept is based on designing programs that aim to perform right the first time. And take this concept as the motto of doing your work properly from the first time. However, this concept – as seen by Ishikawa, the theorist of quality circles in Japan – fails to recognize that quality problems arise from the system of the organization as a whole and not from the workers only. And that unlike the philosophy of quality rings, this concept (no errors) asked the worker to adhere to operating standards without trying to discuss and evaluate them to improve them.
In 1985, Deming crystallized the concept of comprehensive quality control, specifying an important role for senior management in instilling the importance of quality and ensuring ways to enhance it. And that quality is the responsibility of every individual in the organization. And that this requires training workers on statistical methods of quality control, and paying attention to maintaining and improving equipment periodically, in a way that contributes to preventing its shortcomings. It also requires quality assurance at the source rather than after production
The beginnings and development of quality
Yes to the exclusion of defects by those responsible for production (1900 – 1920)
The principle of inspection by specialized departments called quality control departments (1920-1924)
Statistical quality control theory and interest in quality management in the US Department of Defense.
The transfer of quality to Japan through Deming and Juran, and then the spread of episodes
Quality and the beginning of the concept of continuous improvement.
The spread of the concept of quality assurance (1970)
The emergence of quality systems (ISO) (1987)
The emergence of total quality management (TQM) (1987)
Definition of quality
Fit for purpose
The degree to which a combination of different characteristics can fulfill the requirements.
The degree to which a set of different characteristics fulfills requirements
A set of characteristics that must be available in the product or service in order to meet the required needs.
acceptable limit of efficacy.
Effectively securing the product or service the desire of the consumer for a reasonable period.
Quality and its eight principles
It is a set of comprehensive basic rules for leading and operating a facility, and aims to continuously improve long-term performance by focusing on customers by understanding their needs.
1 Focus on customers.
3- Employee participation.
4 Operations planning.
5- System style of administration.
6- Continuous improvement.
7- Make decisions based on facts and facts.
8- Relationships with suppliers.
quality at present
1- Quality System (ISO), which means:
a) A documented administrative system in which all the operations of the establishment are drawn, and it must include quality evidence, procedures and forms.
b) Ensure that all operations are carried out in the same manner.
2- Total Quality Management (TQM), which means:
a) Continuous improvement of operations in order to satisfy customers and reduce the cost and the time period required to implement the operations.
The eight principles of quality
1- Focus on customers:
The establishment relies on its customers, so it must understand their current and future needs in order to meet their requests and work to exceed their expectations.
The leadership is responsible for drawing up the organization’s strategy, achieving its goals and directions, and creating the appropriate internal climate for employees to encourage their active participation in order to achieve the organization’s goals.
3- Employee participation:
Workers at various levels are the core of the establishment, and their full participation lies in using their capabilities for the benefit of the establishment.
4- Planning operations:
You get good results and high efficiency when you manage resources and related activities as a process (process concept).
5- Working in a systemic manner in management:
Defining, understanding and managing operations as an interdependent system that improves the effectiveness and efficiency of the facility.
6- Continuous improvement:
Continuous improvement of the overall performance of the facility should be a permanent goal.
7- Make decisions:
Effective decisions are based on analyzing data and information based on facts and facts.
8- Relationships with suppliers:
The facility and the resource depend on each other, and the relationship of mutual interest between them increases their ability to achieve the common benefit.
What are the international standards ISO 9001, 14001, 17025??
Standard ISO 9001 / 2000:
Quality management systems requirements.
Standard ISO 14001 / 2004:
Environmental management systems requirements and guidelines for use.
ISO 17025 / 2005:
General requirements for the competence of calibration and testing laboratories.
The date this specification was issued
The first version of ISO 9000 in 1987:
This standard is prepared by ISO 176 Technical Committee, Quality Management and Quality Assurance Sub-Committee (2) Quality Systems.
The first version of ISO 14001 in 1996:
This standard is being prepared by Technical Committee 207, Environmental Management, Sub-Committee (1) Environmental Management Systems.
The first version of ISO 17025 in 1999:
It replaced the ISO 25 / 1990 guide to the Conformity Assessment Committee / CASCO.
International Standard ISO 17025
Applying this standard to calibration and testing laboratories, and an accreditation certificate can be obtained if all the requirements of this standard are met.
It has two main components
– 1- Administrative requirements
– 2- Technical requirements
Administrative requirements of ISO 17025
Administrative quality system
– Document control
– the purchase
– Adjusting non-conforming test work and calibrations
– Preventive measure
– Setting records
– internal audit
Technical requirements of ISO 17025
The human element
Methods of testing and calibration
Measurement and return
– Circulation of calibration and test items
Ensure the quality of test and calibration results
International standard ISO 14000
This international standard is built like all other quality specifications (plan – do – check – develop).
Differences between ISO 9001 and 14001
product or service requirements
Review product or service requirements
Control of non-conforming product or service
Observation and measurement.
Benefits of applying these international standards
A common international language of understanding.
Raising the administrative and technical efficiency of the facility.
Raise the level of quality in general for products and services.
Reducing costs while enhancing competition in the markets.
Fulfilling the terms of the contract.
Achieving mutual recognition.
Rationalizing the consumption of energy and natural resources and reducing pollution.
Achieving continuous improvement