Quality

Specifications science

Specifications mean the characteristics and special features of the product or service to perform a specific purpose, and the specifications are considered a language of understanding and a means of communication with all links dealing with the product or service.

The ISO guide and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC / ISO) define a standard as a document prepared on the basis of agreement, approved by a recognized organization to provide (for repeated use) rules, instructions or characteristics related to activities or their results with the aim of achieving the optimum degree of the system in a specific framework.

Content of the standard

Standard specifications differ in their nature and subject, as well as in the medium in which they are recorded. The standard specifications:

It includes many fields: it deals with all technical, economic and social aspects of human activities. It covers all basic disciplines such as language sciences, sports, physics and … etc.

Consistent and logical: it is formulated by technical committees in coordination with a specialized body and in a way that ensures overcoming obstacles between the various activities and disciplines.

Resulting from participation: Standard specifications reflect the results of joint research and studies and include all competent authorities before approval and agreement on them to represent the interests of all concerned parties: producers, users, laboratories, government agencies, consumers…etc.

It represents an active and effective process: Standard specifications are based on real experiences and reach tangible results in practical reality (dealing with products such as goods, services, test methods, etc.) as they provide a compromise between technical data and prevailing economic obstacles.

They are updated in a periodic manner: Standard specifications are updated in a periodic manner, according to circumstances, or whenever necessary to ensure that they keep pace with the present situation, which makes them evolve to suit technological and social developments.

They are considered reference documents: for commercial contracts or in cases of legal disputes, the standards enjoy recognition at the national as well as the international levels, as the standards are considered documents recognized nationally, regionally and internationally, depending on the cases.

Available to all: standards can be viewed and obtained without any restrictions or conditions.

The role of the standard

In general, standards are not mandatory, but are available for implementation as an option. And it becomes compulsory in some cases (areas related to security, electrical equipment, in the field of government contracts….)

Types of standards

Four main types of standards can be mentioned:

Basic standards related to terminology, metrology, agreements, signs, symbols, etc

Standard specifications related to methods of testing, analysis and measurement of properties.

Standard specifications that define product characteristics (product specifications) or service specifications (service specifications), as well as those that specify the required performance limits (usability, aspects of product interchangeability, health, safety, environmental preservation, model contract, documents accompanying products or services, and ……etc)

Organizing specifications relating to the description of the various functions of institutions and the interrelationships between them as well as the forms of activity (quality management, maintenance, value analysis, dynamic operations, project or systems management, production management, ……… etc.)

Standard life cycle

In general, the standard preparation process includes seven main stages:

1. Determining the needs: It is possible, according to the sector, to analyze the adequacy of the specifications and study the feasibility of preparing them from the technical and economic points of view, based on two crucial questions: Does the standard add anything to the concerned sector from the technical and economic aspects?

Is there sufficient knowledge available to formulate the standard specification?

2. Collective programming: Studying the needs identified and the priorities identified by the parties facilitates the decision to include the subject in the work program of the concerned body.

3. Preparing a draft standard: by the concerned parties represented by experts (including producers, users, laboratories, government agencies, consumers…etc.) who meet within the framework of the standardization committees.

4. Expert agreement on the draft standard

5. Approval: Broad consultations at the national or international level, as the case may be, in the form of a general survey that takes into account all economic parties to ensure that the draft standard is consistent with the public interest and does not face major objections. Examining the results and observations received on the project, and then finalizing the text of the draft standard.

6. Approval of the blade to be published as standard

7. Revision: The application of all standards is subject to a periodic assessment of their suitability by the entity concerned with standardization, which provides an opportunity in a timely manner to know whether the standard requires revision to suit the new requirements. After revision, the standard can be kept without changes, modified or canceled.

Copyright and usage rights
National Standard Specifications:

The standard represents a team work. The national standard is studied and programmed under the supervision of the National Organization for Standardization. which you publish, which gives it protection, since the emergence of the draft standard, based on the author’s rights enjoyed by the supervising authority.

International Standard Specifications:

Since the preparation of the draft committee, the international standards have enjoyed protection under the copyrights issued by the international organizations for standardization (ISO, IEC). The rights to exploit copyright are transferred directly to the national standardization organizations that are members of ISO or IEC for the preparation of national standard specifications. It is imperative for the national apparatus to take the necessary measures to protect the intellectual property of ISO and IEC organizations at the national level. Every draft international standard and every published international standard includes a copyright declaration attached to an international copyright symbol along with the name and date of the publishing house.

re

Publication:

With the exception of some exceptional cases provided for, it is not possible to republish, record or transmit any specification, even in part, and in any capacity or form, electronic or mechanical, including all methods of copying and photocopying, except with the written consent of the concerned national or international authority.

Use of public networks, including the Internet:

At the national, regional or international level, it is necessary to consult the National Organization for Standardization before opening any electronic network, public or private (Internet, Intranet, and the like) for the purpose of publishing, transferring or exchanging texts or parts thereof related to standard specifications, inside or outside the framework of standardization work. In all cases, there is an explicit commitment to follow the recommendations of the national or international body for standardization every time public or private networks are used.

The role of standardization

Currently, standardization is considered one of the most important areas necessary for all parties involved in economic activities that need to participate in its activities and results. Twenty years ago standardization was limited to specialists only. But now it has become an essential element of the commercial and technical elements of the institutions, as the companies are growing aware of the need to play an effective role in this field or willingness to accept standard specifications that they were not a party to preparing or that do not take into account the interests of these companies.

Quality claim

After its appearance in the fifties, the demand for quality grew more and more to become an effective element within the framework of the competitive system. It is easy to compare prices, while comparing quality levels remains a complex matter, which makes the existence of a unanimously recognized reference system in the field of quality as a tool for crystallizing matters. The standard plays exactly this role.

Technical and technological development:

Another element behind the growth of standardization is the emergence of new techniques and technologies. All technologies related to informatics or dealing with it and transmitting it remotely (data processing, communications, information highways, …, etc.) require the establishment of networks. The development of other technologies based on networks (electronic transmission) is linked to the extent to which users accept unified rules for the exchange of uses. Where these technologies play an important role in the economies of developed countries, as is the case, for example, with regard to the exchange of programmed information or through the computer.

Standardization at the international, regional and national levels

The process of coordinating actions at all these levels is carried out through joint structures and cooperation agreements:

× The most important bodies specialized in standardization at the international, regional and national levels:

International organizations and bodies

Short name

regional organizations

Short name

International Organization for Standardization

ISO

African Regional Organization for Standardization

ARSO

International Electrotechnical Commission

IEC

Arab Organization for Industrial Development and Mining

aidmo

Codex Alimentarius Committee

CODEX

European Organization for Standardization

CEN

WTO

WTO

European Electrotechnical Commission

CENELEC

International Trade Centre

ITC

European Telecom Standards Institute

ETSI

International Organization for Legal Standards

OIML

Standardization Organization for the Gulf Cooperation Council countries

GSO

American Society for Materials and Testing

ASTM

Latin American Institute of Quality
LAQI
International Federation of Users of Standards
IFAN
International Accreditation Forum
IAF
Arab Standards Organizations
Short name
foreign standards bodies
Short name
Libyan National Center for Standards and Standards
LNCSM
German Standards Agency
DIN
Algerian Institute for Standardization
IANOR
American Standards Authority
ANSI
Tunisian Institute of Standards and Industrial Property
INORPI
Italian Standards Authority
UNI
Saudi Arabian Organization for Standardization and Metrology
SASO
British Standards Authority

BSI

Public Authority for Industry in Kuwait

PAI

French Standards Authority

AFNOR

Lebanese Standards Institution

LIBNOR

Indian Standards Authority

bis

Jordan Standards Institution

jism

Japanese Standards Agency

JIS

Palestinian Standards Institution

PSI
Emirates Authority for Standardization and Metrology

ESMA
Moroccan Standards Authority

SNIMA
Syrian Arab Standards and Metrology Organization

SASMO
Ministry of Commerce and Industry – Sultanate of Oman

Mocioman

 

Standardization at the national, regional and international levels

 

international standardization
ISO organization

It was established in 1947 and represents an international federation of national standardization organizations that currently has more than 140 members, one from each country. The mission of ISO is to encourage the development of standardization and related activities in the world with the aim of facilitating the exchange of goods and services as well as to achieve a common understanding in the intellectual, scientific, technical and economic fields. Its work is related to all areas of standardization except for the electrical and electrotechnical standards that are under the custody of the IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission)

ISO includes more than 2800 technical bodies (technical committees, sub-committees, working groups and specialized groups). ISO has published more than 13,000 international standards to date.

International Electrotechnical Commission IEC

It was established in 1906 and its responsibilities include international standardization in the fields of electrical, electronic and related technologies. Its charter covers all areas of electrical technology, including electronic, magnetic, electromagnetic, communications, and energy production and distribution. The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) includes more than 50 members, each representing his country within national committees that fully represent the interests of their countries in the electrotechnical field. NECs enjoy broad industry support and are recognized by governments.

To date, the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) has published more than 4,500 specifications.

International Telecommunication Union I.T.U

The beginning of the establishment of the I.T.U organization dates back to the year 1865. I.T.U is one of the nations organizations

 

specialized unit. It was established in 1947 and currently has nearly 180 member countries and more than 400 members from various sectors. It prepares the international recommendations of the International Telecommunication Union in the field of telecommunications and wireless communications

I.T.U’s headquarters are located in Geneva, Switzerland.

Other international organizations that have activities in the field of standards:

There are a large number of international organizations associated with ISO and the International Electrotechnical Commission, which are involved to various degrees in its work. Many of these organizations have their own activity in the field of standardization according to their internationally recognized terms of reference. In many cases, the standardization work emanating from these organizations is reported to the ISO systems and the International Electrotechnical Commission, where it is published by the latter. While some of these organizations publish their own standard specifications that must be considered when examining international standardization systems.

International organizations and bodies

 

Short name

 

full name

 

website

 

International Organization for Standardization

 

ISO

 

International Organization for Standardization

 

http://www.iso.org

 

International Electrotechnical Commission

 

IEC

 

International Electrotechnical Commission

 

http://www.iec.ch

 

Codex Alimentarius Committee

 

CODEX

 

The Codex Alimentarius Commission

 

http://www.codexalimentarius.net

 

WTO

 

WTO

 

The World Trade Organization

 

http://www.wto.org

 

International Trade Centre

 

ITC

 

International Trade Centre

 

http://www.intracen.org

 

International Organization for Legal Standards

 

OIML

 

International Organization of Legal Metrology

 

http://www.oiml.org

 

American Society for Materials and Testing

 

ASTM

 

American Society for Testing and Materials

 

http://www.astm.org

 

International Federation of Users of Standards

 

IFAN

 

International Federation of Standards Users

 

http://www.ifan.org

 

International Accreditation Forum

 

IAF

 

International Accreditation Forum

 

Regional standardization:
in Europe:
European Standardization Organization C.E.N

C.E.N. was established in 1961 and is working on preparing international standards through the 18 European standardization institutes. C.E.N. has witnessed remarkable development with the establishment of the European Union. The Authority’s headquarters are in Brussels – Belgium.

The Technical Bureau carries out the process of coordination, planning and programming of works that are formulated by the working organs (technical and sub-committees and working groups) through secretariats distributed among the various member states. C.E.N. has more than 250 technical committees and has published no less than 2,400 documents, including 2,100 European standards. While there are more than 9000 documents currently under study.

CENELEC European Organization for Standardization in the Electrotechnical Field

It was established in 1959 and its headquarters is in Brussels – Belgium. The European Organization for Standardization in the Electrotechnical Field, CENELEC, operates in the electrotechnical field, similar to the CEN organization.

The European Institute for Telecommunications Standardization (ETSI).

The European Institute for Telecommunications Standardization (ETSI) develops European standards in the field of telecommunications (European ETSI Telecom Standards). It is based in Sophia Antipolis, France.

ETSI has 400 members (management, operations, research agencies, industrialists, users) representing more than 30 countries (European Union, European Free Trade Area, Eastern Europe).

in America:
The American Organization for Standardization (COPANT):

COPANT is a non-commercial public benefit association. It enjoys complete independence in its management and an unlimited period of time. One of its main objectives is the development of technical standardization and related activities within the member countries in order to facilitate industrial, scientific and technological development for the benefit of commercial exchanges for goods and services as well as to consolidate cooperation in the intellectual, scientific and social fields.

The body coordinates the activities of the standardization institutes within Latin American countries. It also issues all kinds of product specifications, test methods, terminology and related topics. The Authority’s headquarters are in Buenos Aires – Argentina.

Single Market of the South: MERCOSUR

Known under the names MERCOSUR in Spanish and MERCOSUL in Portuguese. This single market consists of the economies of Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay. Its main objectives revolve around improving the economies of member states and improving their viability and competitiveness through expanding markets and stimulating the process of economic development using the best available resources, preserving the environment, improving communications, coordinating economic policies and creating harmony between the various economic sectors.

The permanent headquarters of the organization is in Montevideo. Uruguay.

regional organizations

 

Short name

 

full name

 

website

 

African Regional Organization for Standardization

 

ARSO

 

The African Organization for Standardisation

 

http://www.arso-oran.org

 

Arab Organization for Industrial Development and Mining

 

aidmo

 

Arabic Industrial Development and Mining Organization

 

http://www.aidmo.org

 

European Organization for Standardization

 

CEN

 

The European Committee for Standardization

 

http://www.cen.eu

 

European Electrotechnical Commission

 

CENELEC

 

the European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization

 

http://www.cenelec.eu

 

European Telecom Standards Institute

 

ETSI

 

European Telecommunications Standards Institute

 

http://www.etsi.org

 

Standardization Organization for the Gulf Cooperation Council countries

 

GSO

 

Gulf Cooperation Council Countries Standardization Organization

 

 

Latin American Institute of Quality

LAQI

 

Latin American Quality Institute

 

http://www.laqi.org

Standardization at the national level:

Each country has a national system of standardization: the central body or the most representative body participates in regional and international organizations.

foreign standards bodies

 

Short name

 

full name

 

website

 

German Standards Agency

 

DIN

 

Deutsche Institut für Normung

(The German Institute for Standardization)

 

http://www.din.de

 

American Standards Authority

 

ANSI

 

American National Standards Institute

 

http://www.ansi.org

 

Italian Standards Authority

 

UNI

 

It’s Nazionale Italiano di Unificazione

(The Italian Organization for Standardization)

 

 

British Standards Authority

 

BSI

 

British Standards Institution

 

http://www.bsi-global.com

 

French Standards Authority

 

AFNOR

 

Association française de normalization

(The French National Organization for Standardization)

 

 

Indian Standards Authority

 

bis

 

Bureau of Indian Standards

 

http://www.bis.org.in

 

Japanese Standards Agency

 

JIS

 

Japanese Standards Association

 

http://www.jsa.or.jp

 

Arab Standards Organizations

 

Short name

 

full name

 

website

 

The Egyptian General Organization for Standardization and Quality

 

EOS

 

Egyptian Organization for Standards and Quality

 

http://www.eos.org.eg

 

Libyan National Center for Standards and Standards

 

LNCSM

 

The Libyan National Center for Standardization and Metrology

 

http://www.lncsm.org.ly

 

Algerian Institute for Standardization

 

IANOR

 

Institute of Algerian Normalization

(Algerian Institute of Standardization)

 

 

Tunisian Institute of Standards and Industrial Property

 

INORPI

 

Institut National de la Normalization et de la Propriété Industrielle

(National Institute for Standardization and Industrial Property)

 

http://www.innorpi.tn

 

Saudi Arabian Organization for Standardization and Metrology

 

SASO

 

Saudi Standards, Metrology and Quality Organization

 

http://www.saso.org.sa

 

Public Authority for Industry in Kuwait

 

PAI

 

Public Authority for Industry

 

http://www.pai.gov.kw

 

Lebanese Standards Institution

 

LIBNOR

 

Lebanese Standards Institution

 

http://www.libnor.org

 

Jordan Standards Institution

 

jism

 

Jordan Institution for Standards and Metrology

 

http://www.jism.gov.jo

 

Palestinian Standards Institution

 

PSI

 

Palestinian Standards Institution

 

http://www.psi.gov.ps

 

Emirates Authority for Standardization and Metrology

 

ESMA

 

Emirates Authority Standardization and Metrology

 

http://www.esma.ae

 

Moroccan Standards Authority

 

SNIMA

 

Service of Normalization of the Marocaine Industry

(Industrial Service for Moroccan Standards)

 

http://www.snima.ma

 

Syrian Arab Standards and Metrology Organization

 

SASMO

 

Syrian Arab Standards and Metrology Organization

 

http://www.sasmo.net

 

Ministry of Commerce and Industry – Sultanate of Oman

 

Mocioman

 

Ministry of Commerce and Industry, Oman

 

http://www.mocioman.gov.om

standardization processes

At the national level, standardization work is carried out by standardization committees supported by groups of experts. These committees are made up of qualified representatives from industry, research institutes, government authority, consumer associations and professional organizations.

At the regional and international levels, technical committees under the secretariat of the national standardization organizations undertake the work. The technical committees are formed by the technical management offices of the concerned regional or international organization. All national members have the right to be represented at the level of a regional or international committee concerned with a particular topic.

Standardization and the World Trade Organization (WTO).

In the light of the final negotiations of the Uruguay session of the “GATT” organization, the World Trade Organization (WTO) emerged on January 1, 1995. The organization includes 145 members (central governments) in January 2002. The Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) is one of the legal texts in a series of 29 WTO agreements that require members to ensure that technical regulations, voluntary standards and conformity assessment procedures do not pose unnecessary obstacles to trade. And Annex No. 3 of the Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade of the World Trade Organization is considered a code of practice for the formulation, approval and implementation of the standard. By accepting the TBT Agreement, WTO members agree to ensure that the standardization bodies of central governments agree to and follow codes of practice and to take all reasonable measures to ensure that the standardizing bodies of local governments and non-governmental organizations will endeavor in the same direction. So the Code of Practice is open to acceptance by all of these organizations.

The TBT Agreement stresses the importance of the role of international systems of standardization and conformity assessment in enhancing production cycle efficiency and facilitating global trade. According to the rules of practice, in the event that international standards exist or if the latter are under final formulation, organizations concerned with standards activities must use international standards or their important elements as bases for drafting new standards, in order to establish a kind of harmony in the field of standards. And cheer

The rules of practice for all concerned organizations to actively participate, according to their resources, in the formulation of international standards within the framework of the concerned international organizations.

To ensure the greatest degree of transparency, the Code of Practice requires organizations concerned with standards and whose texts have agreed to communicate the content of their approval to the information center of the ISO / IEC organizations located in the Central Secretariat of the ISO in Geneva, directly or through the concerned national / international member of the ISONET information network. To contact all members of the ISONET information network, addresses can be obtained through the ISONET directory. Organizations active in the field of standardization must publish their work programs and report their content to the IEC/ISO Information Center at least once every 6 months. There are also other important texts related to drafting standards and approving them before implementing them.

The WTO TBT Code of Practice Guide gives a list of organizations working in the field of standardization that have notified their agreement to the WTO TBT Code of Practice and Implementation. The directory also contains the addresses of the concerned institutions, as well as a set of information on the possibility of obtaining their work programmes. The guide is published annually.

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