Governmental and private organizations in most countries of the world have become aware of the importance of applying the total quality management model, in order to raise productivity and achieve quality in produced goods, through the use of modern methods of management that maintain the continuity of organizations and their survival in the midst of competitive crowds between organizations and governments in the world.
Quality management and its applications have occupied a special importance, whether at the global or local level, if it is considered one of the prevailing and desirable administrative patterns in the current period, and one of those wishing to apply it has described it as the third revolutionary wave after the industrial revolution and the computer revolution. The concept of total quality management, as indicated by the administrative literature, is related to the main ideas of Japanese management, human resource management, and excellence
Organizational development is studied steps by the organization or establishment to improve the performance of a particular sector by using modern tools, new ideas and experts in the field of this sector in order to obtain the maximum return or output from the outputs of this sector. On modern production methods to increase the output of textiles with higher quality and lower cost.
The concept of quality management:
The concept of quality management is one of the modern management concepts, and many international organizations have begun to apply it to update and develop the quality of their production services, help in severe challenges, and gain public satisfaction. Governmental and private administrative organizations have achieved great successes following the application of this concept, especially in developed countries such as Japan, the United States of America, the United Kingdom and France. The concept of quality management has become an important management concept in the field of modern administrations and organizations through the successes achieved by the new style in management.
As a result of the importance of this concept and the spread of its application in the countries of the world, researchers and scholars have increased in the centers of its knowledge, and provided a lot of support that helps to adopt and apply it. Many definitions have been put forward for this concept, and each definition has a concept and meaning that reflects the researcher’s point of view, but this did not affect and did not change the concept and meaning of quality management. Evaluation of work in the knowledge of improving performance.
Total quality management is defined as “developing and maintaining the capabilities of the organization in order to continuously improve quality, meet and exceed the requirements of the beneficiary, as well as search for quality and apply it in any aspect of the work, starting from identifying the needs of the beneficiary and ending with knowing the extent of the beneficiary’s satisfaction with the services or products provided. for him ” .
Elements of quality management:
The method of total quality management includes a set of elements and principles that must be adhered to and adhered to in order to achieve success in applying this concept, and the objectives that this management method seeks to achieve, represented in achieving administrative performance, and achieving public satisfaction with services and production. The basic elements of total quality:
First: The commitment of senior management to the principle of improving quality management
i.e. the need for the interest of senior management to work to improve the quality and quality of services provided or goods produced, as well as the need for senior management and its employees for what the process of applying quality management will achieve in terms of rationalization, increase profits and support for the organization administrative and then support the administration and the continuity of its success. The adoption and enthusiasm of senior management for the concept of total quality management and support for the application of this principle and the modernization and development of application requirements is the cornerstone of the success of the organization, the success of individuals, and the success of the concept of quality management.
Second: Develop plans continuously to improve the level of service:
The importance of planning is no less important than the importance of any of the other management functions, if successful planning represents the survival and continuity of the organizations through the process of thoughtful and organized forecasting for the future, the development of estimates and possibilities based on scientific foundations, and the identification of programs to be completed in line with the capabilities of the organization and rational decision-making. Hence, continuous planning is necessary to improve the quality and quality of the services provided in a way that helps the administration to implement the concept of total quality management, and to work for the administration to reach goals according to scientific foundations through the optimal use and distribution of available resources.
Third: Caring for the service audience:
Public satisfaction is the primary objective of any organization, whether in terms of providing public services as in the public sector or producing goods as in the private sector.
Quality management is an administrative method that affirms the philosophy of the necessity of the requirements, needs and expectations of the public. Quality management focuses primarily on the public by adhering to its requirements and needs, trying to find out the extent of its satisfaction with the service and the product, as well as trying to identify its future needs because failure to meet these needs by organizations means their failure. The promise of its success and then its loss and fading.
Fourth: Training employees on total quality management:
The success of total quality management requires attention to provide the working individuals with the skills and capabilities necessary for their application and success, through work and training of these working individuals by providing qualified training programs capable of delivering information and skills in a positive way that reflects on the performance and ability of the individuals. The process of training employees must be based on scientific foundations capable of improving the level of performance of individuals. Training has an important place in the success of the process of applying quality management, as it helps to achieve the following objectives:
1- Providing individuals with updated information on the nature of business and methods.
2- Giving individuals a
Adequate research to apply this information and skills.
Fifth: Participation of working individuals in decision-making processes:
Participation is seen as the process of individuals interacting mentally and emotionally with the work groups in the organization in a way that enables them to mobilize the efforts and energies necessary to correct the organizational goals. The working individuals have a great influence on the progress of the production process, as they are the most familiar with work problems, and the most knowledgeable in finding solutions. The decision to participate is the closest to the reality of the solution in the administrative organizations, because it is a decision that is manufactured collectively and as a result of discussion and exchange of views, and then it has the ability to find ideal solutions for organizational or administrative problems.
Total quality management requires a high level of participation from all individuals working at various administrative levels, as management must respond to the suggestions and positive opinions of employees, because their participation leads to raising morale and improving attitudes and relationships in a way that reflects on productivity. The administrative literature has indicated that the participation of employees and management leads to job satisfaction and then an increase in the level of affiliation and loyalty. And work with everything they have to achieve the goals of the organization. This concept is what the total quality management wants to achieve in a way that gives senior management an indication of the importance of employees’ participation in organizational processes, and generates among employees a feeling that they are part of the existing organizational structure.
Sixth: Formation of work teams:
The formation of a work team within modern administrative organizations is one of the requirements for applying quality management aimed at solving problems to find solutions by using what is known as the work team. With the aim of improving the quality and quality of services and goods produced.
Seventh: Determining quality standards:
There are standards according to which the quality of the service provided is measured, and these standards are among the foundations and ingredients for the success of quality management. The working individuals must abide by them in order to ensure the best performance of the workers and thus provide high quality services that satisfy the desires of the public. Some of these standards include taking into account accuracy, organization and time in the case of providing services, and working on the necessity of providing information and addressing administrative problems and difficulties facing the public while obtaining the service, and in order to set accurate standards in quality management, two basic conditions must be met:
1- The need to distinguish between measurable tasks and non-measurable tasks.
2- Developing a different treatment for tasks that require more complex work, through the influences that result from the task analysis process.
Eighth: Remuneration of employees:
The application of quality management requires giving individuals incentives that help satisfy their needs and motivate them to do their best to achieve the goals of the organization. Incentives have multiple forms such as material rewards, promotion and recognition, or working to allocate a percentage of shares for some distinguished individuals in the case of applying quality management in private companies. In the public sector, material and moral incentives and the participation of individuals in decision-making are all considered effective motivational tools. In addition , giving workers some privileges such as social security , retirement fund , health insurance , and so on affects the personality of individuals and their job behaviors , which pushes them to diligence , improve performance and achieve the objectives of the organization .
Requirements for applying total quality management:
Despite the importance of applying quality management to achieve the required objectives, the success of this application requires the following requirements to be met:
1- Organizations should be aware of customers and customers as well as their needs, and organizations should work to modify and develop the necessary and necessary behavior and methods to develop their outputs in line with the needs of individuals and the surrounding environmental changes.
The organization can develop mechanisms that help to understand the needs of workers and help to study the surrounding environmental changes, including:
A#- Direct meeting with customers and getting acquainted through this meeting with the quality standards as seen by customers.
B#- Using evaluation and survey studies to find out the extent of individuals’ satisfaction with goods and services.
C#- Managers carrying out direct contact with clients.
2- The need for organizations to know their competitors in the local and global market, and this depends on the organization’s ability to analyze the markets to identify the competing entities in terms of size, resources and product so that it can develop specific strategies that it will follow in production and marketing, and make a comprehensive comparison with these competitors. And work to raise their levels to the required level. This requires the organization to be aware of all environmental variables and to respond to opportunities and limitations.
3- To be aware of the results of non-application of quality in the services and products it provides. The process of determining and studying the costs and results of the organization’s non-application of quality management constitutes a great motivation that motivates the organization to implement the concept of total quality management, especially if it is aware of the results of applying total quality management in particular. If she is aware of the results of the application of quality management and the benefits that will be obtained. Despite the face of the organization’s ability to calculate costs in case
Non-compliance with total quality management causes great difficulties, but this does not prevent a study of these costs according to a scientific methodology.
4- Working on defining the goals of each administrative unit with regard to satisfying the needs of our internal and external customers alike, and achieving these demands helps the administrative units achieve their goals within a specific goal in the field of providing services and goods to the public, so the process of setting goals for the administrative units plays an active role in meeting The needs of the public and work to find integration and coordination between the administrative units to achieve the general goal of the organization, because the lack of defining objectives for each administrative unit results in overlapping the duties and terms of reference of these units in a way that leads to the existence of what is called organizational conflict.
5- Make sure that the working individuals understand and know the concept of total quality management and the requirements for its application. If this understanding results in increasing the commitment of individuals to the responsibilities they are required to carry out, and this is important because the participation of workers in the application of quality management leads to the creation of a good organizational climate that helps in this. This participation requires training of working individuals to carry out their duties and linking that to incentive systems that help and encourage individuals to adhere to the application of the concept of quality management.
6- Not accepting the provision of any services or goods that do not meet the specifications of total quality management.
7- Adopting the application of the concept of preventive rather than curative gestures when applying the concept of total quality management, which helps organizations to increase their ability to face problems before they occur and then reduce costs and increase productivity.
Benefits of applying quality management:
The use of certain administrative principles and concepts cannot gain the attention of senior management unless the application and use of these principles results in certain benefits, and the application of the concept of total quality management leads to the following benefits:
1- Improving the quality of services and produced goods.
2- Raise the level of performance.
3- Reducing operating costs.
4- Work to improve and develop work procedures and methods.
5- Increase employee loyalty.
6- Increasing the ability of organizations to survive and continue.
As for what the working individuals earn as a result of their commitment to the application of total quality management, they are:
1- Giving employees time and opportunity to use their skills and abilities.
2- Developing their skills by participating in the development of work methods and procedures.
3- Providing the necessary training.
4- Giving them appropriate incentives for your efforts to carry out their work.
The success of total quality management depends on the human element in terms of training the working personnel and increasing the creation of an appropriate organizational climate.
1- Evaluate the current situation of the organization regarding the application of total quality management.
2- The need to know the causes of problems through analytical studies of the organization that drives it to apply total quality management.
3- Developing training programs for all administrative levels with the aim of developing workers’ skills on the concept of quality management.
4- The necessity of providing what is known as the “quality guide”.
5- Providing an information base and necessary data.
6- Applying good material and moral incentive systems.
Steps to implement total quality:
The implementation of total quality management plans and programs includes basic stages:
First: the preparation stage:
At this stage, the work team and its ability to carry out tasks regarding the application of total quality management are confirmed, in terms of skills, competencies and training. Also, at this stage, future lines for the workflow and procedures are drawn up.
Second: the preparation stage:
At this stage, the implementation of the total quality program is planned.
Third: implementation and application stage:
At this stage, the work of the work team is reviewed, a session is activated, and work development is discussed through periodic meetings and meetings. Here it can be said that total quality management is a collaborative effort to accomplish business that depends on the competencies, capabilities and talents of workers and managers to work to achieve high quality and productivity, so it is noted that total quality management includes the following main ideas:
1- The need to pay attention to the quality of the good or service.
2 – The need to ensure the importance of feedback.
3- The need to focus on oversight.
4- Adopting the principle of comprehensive cost in quality.
5- Ensuring the importance of employee involvement.
6- Using the scientific method.
7- Applying the concept of cooperation and integration.
Recent trends in quality management:
As a result of the importance of this method in management, many writers and thinkers wrote about it, and wrote a lot about it, which led to the emergence of a new thought in management through the contributions they made, which were called modern trends in management. These trends, which are contributions made by individuals specialized in this field, have enriched and enriched this subject, and were represented by the attempts of each of the following:
¨ Joseph Juran:
Which focused in the field of what is required of the management to do in the matter of quality on the following:
1- Considering the role of the organization as an integrated whole in providing high quality services.
2- Each administrative level shall fully carry out its duties.
Joseph focused his contribution on the following:
A#- Work on the need to improve quality.
B#- The need to improve quality.
C- Preparing reports showing the stages of the completed work.
D- Forming and building an organization based on:
o Formation of a council to study quality in its various dimensions.
o Maintain production records.
o Introduce continuous improvement.
Through his contribution to this new thought of quality management, Joseph became famous for:
1- Quality planning.
2- Quality control.
3- Improving quality.
¨ Philip Crossi:
The main ideas of his contribution to quality improvement are based on the two concepts:
Quality management and the basic elements of development. The basics, as defined by Crosby, are:
1- Defining quality as conforming to standards
2- Work to prevent errors from occurring.
3- Performance, provided that it is an excellent product or service.
The basic elements that Crosby referred to for quality improvement are:
1- Insistence on the part of the upper management.
2- Educating all working personnel and working on training them.
3- The actual application of these basics.
¨ Eduardo Deming:
In his contribution to the improvement of total quality management, he referred to the following principles:
1- The need to continuously improve work systems and services.
2- Focusing on the importance of leadership.
3- Reducing and easing the barriers between departments and departments within the organization.
4- Using training to develop skills.
5- Using the scientific method.
6- The necessity of non-conflict between objectives.
7- The need to introduce change.
8- Stop relying on testing for the purpose of detecting errors.
9- Establishing a long-term relationship with the parties.
10- Work to remove fear in the work team.
11- Stop threatening workers.
12- Develop education programs.
13- Giving opportunities to raise the morale of the work team.
14- Involving every individual within the organization in the process of transformation and application of this concept.
The role of total quality management in organizational development:
Total quality management contributes to achieving the objectives of organizational development through several dimensions, and this relationship can be seen in the following figure, which includes a focus on three main axes:
1- The owners.
3- The staff.
The application of total quality management by taking advantage of the available environmental potential, whether technological, human or material, leads to the development of the level of service or the produced commodity, which leads to achieving public satisfaction, especially if the prices of goods and services are moderate and appropriate to the social, economic and functional dimensions, which results in An increase in loyalty, satisfaction, and belonging to the administrative organization, and an increase in the service or product dog, and then an increase in profits and competition.
Total quality management can be considered as a means of organizational development by looking at the two dimensions of organizational satisfaction and loyalty that aim to change the existing organizational culture and replace it with a new organizational culture, where organizational culture can be considered as one of the methods of development by spreading awareness and knowledge of total quality management. This is done by focusing on the participation of workers at all levels.
The focus of quality management on innovation and creativity means that employees have high skills and competencies in order to maintain their continued presence in the organization, and push these individuals to make more efforts to achieve the goals in a way that leads to increasing the organization’s administrative capabilities to compete by adopting new methods of work to improve With the level of service or product as a result, with the aim of increasing marketing, profits and sales, improving employees, and increasing their loyalty and belonging to their organizations.
International Organization for Standardization and Metrology (ISO 9000)
International Standardization Organization
The organization was established in 1946 after World War II, and its headquarters was in Switzerland. Its mission was to issue international (global) standards, and standardize specifications in the industrial field at the global level in order to help facilitate the conduct of trade exchange in goods and services. Participation in this organization shall be at the rate of one member for each country, taking into account the interests of all parties, including producers, users, governments, scientific bodies, etc., and until the minimum level of comprehensive quality is determined.
This series has received a lot of global support and attention, and its fame is related to the announcement by the European Community countries of the conditions for entry of some services and goods into their markets by the necessity of obtaining a certificate of conformity with the specifications of ISO 9000, taking into account not to confuse or merge between the specifications of ISO 9000 for the total quality management system and the technical specifications of the commodity Or service, it was necessary to produce goods and services with international specifications that conform to specific specifications, so the ISO 9000 specifications are complementary and not a substitute for the technical specifications of the goods and services produced.
The word ISO has connotations and meanings, as it is an abbreviation of the name of the International Organization for Standardization and Metrology, and it is the body that has jurisdiction to issue international standards. The number 9000 refers to a series of specifications concerned with feasibility management in industry and services. The origin of these blanket specifications dates back to 1987 with the aim of raising the level of quality in British industries.
The International Organization for Measurement and Standards aims to raise standard levels, and set standards, foundations, tests and certificates related to them in order to encourage trade at the global level, and the number 9000 includes a series of specifications and standards that consist of several specifications bearing the number 9000, namely:
1- ISO 9000, ISO 9004, which are guidelines for how to manage quality and the elements of the quality system within the organization.
2- ISO 9001, ISO 9002, ISO 9003, and specify the requirements for quality assurance in contractual cases, and one of them can be chosen according to the nature of the organization’s work and the contract concluded in each case, and the standard with the number ISO 9001 is one of the most comprehensive specifications for all aspects of the quality system.
International quality standards:
It is necessary to search for international quality standards that have become binding for all organizations wishing to maintain the quality of their services and goods, and the desire to live and continue amidst this intense competition between international organizations, and many organizations that provide services and goods to other countries take care of the need for the availability of international standards in Those services and commodities, as well as the organizations that import their products and also want to provide these specifications in the imported commodities and services.
Commitment and adherence to these standards and standards presupposes that the organizations develop and follow written policies, systems and procedures that secure in a consistent manner the production of goods and services in a manner consistent with
B With the requirements and needs of the public, and the fact that these standards are general and comprehensive, it is possible to ask all organizations to work in accordance with them, and the aspects related to total quality are summarized as follows:
First: The need for organizations to adhere to international quality and its standards in all of their work, and the processes that the quality system occupies are those that affect the final results of work, and for production in industrial establishments they represent:
1- Purchasing materials from their sources.
2- Reviewing the client’s requirements to ensure their clarity.
3- Designing the product if it has not been designed before.
4- Stages of manufacturing.
5- Product testing.
6- Arranging and selling service.
Second: that organizations adhere to quality conditions and apply them at the hands of qualified and capable persons.
Third: The need for internal training programs for workers.
Fourth: The quality system and its international specifications must be documented in the form of:
1- Quality Manual.
2- Work procedures manual.
3- Work instructions manual.
Fifth: The need to prove the organization’s ability to organize its work.
Sixth: The need to exercise administrative control to ensure the steps of applying quality management and following the series of international standards in the product.
ISO 9000 requirements:
The requirements for implementing the ISO 9000 series of international standards must include the following elements:
1- Responsibility of management: Here, the bodies responsible for the progress of the administrative process and audit procedures are identified to ensure the proper functioning of operational processes aimed at applying total quality management and its specifications.
2- Quality system: This system includes the need to study and know the types of activities and tasks that affect the quality and quality of the product, as well as to study and evaluate the quality system in terms of efficiency and effectiveness.
3- Reviewing the constraints: to ensure the organization’s ability to meet the needs of the public, and also to ensure that the public’s requirements are clear and realistic.
4- Controlling the design: that is, continuing work to ensure control over the course of operations, and to ensure that the required specifications and standards have been achieved and maintained.
5- Controlling documents: Adopting organization and accuracy in carrying out work and work procedures, and using documents in a way that preserves their contents and content.
6- Purchasing: Determining the requirements for procurement documents, determining the mechanism for selecting suppliers, clarifying their responsibilities, and ensuring that transactions between the buyer and the supplier are very clear.
7- Materials purchased for manufacturing: Ensure the quality of these materials and the conditions for their use, and ensure accuracy in the system in the event that more than one purchased material is used in the manufacturing process.
8- Controlling the production process: This is done from the date of starting the production process, including planning and following the necessary instructions for both the progress of the operational process and the availability of specifications in the product.
9- Verification and control: Here, a certain mechanism must be followed to ensure that the requirements for success are met, and the persons responsible for these operations must be identified in order to ensure and control.
10- The necessity of availability of control devices and conducting tests.
11- Showing the test results of the product or service.
12- Adjusting the tightness of the non-conforming product to what is required: i.e. the necessity of emphasizing the prevention of using the non-conforming product, and that the control and tightening include the processes of distinguishing, evaluating, isolating and disposing of the non-conforming product. This step includes the following:
1- Reboot to achieve specified requirements.
2- Acceptance with or without reform.
3- Use for other purposes of a lesser standard.
13- Corrective Action: This procedure includes the need to take the following steps:
1- Study and know the reason for the product not conforming to what is required to prevent recurrence.
2- Analyzing and studying data and studying operations to determine the cause of non-conformity.
3- Applying insurance controls and taking the correct procedures.
4- Implementation of modifications in work methods.
14- Storage and packaging.
15- Quality Records: Establishing and maintaining methods for distinguishing, collecting, indexing, preserving, storing and maintaining the required quality records.
16- Internal audit: to ensure that the quality activities and tasks work to achieve the required quality plan.
17 – Training: Work to identify training needs.
19 – The statistical methods used: The need to apply the scientific methodology with its statistical methods, for the purposes of applying international standards.
Benefits of applying ISO 9000:
The adoption of international specifications and standards ISO 9000 entails many benefits accruing to the organization and individuals with many benefits, including:
1- Working to increase the organizations’ ability to compete by adopting work policies and procedures with a high degree of accuracy, clarity and objectivity, which enables these organizations to export their services and products to all countries of the world, as stipulated by the GATT organization.
2- Developing an integrated set of documents that record procedures, processes and work methods in a way that helps achieve international standards.
3- Raising the level of performance and changing the culture of the organization for the better.
4- Building strong and solid relationships with customers.
5 – Teaching officials in the organization methods of review and self-evaluation.
6- Giving employees a sense of confidence and raising morale due to the organization obtaining the international quality certificate.
7- Improving internal and external communication processes.
8- Increasing profits. Opening new markets for marketing services and commodities.
9- Continuity of achieving high quality products.
10- Achieving control over all internal activities