Until 1970, there were no regular legislations in the field of occupational safety and health in the United States of America, and in the year 1970 the US Congress adopted safety and health legislation in OSHA, and in 1971 the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSH ACT) was established by the US Department of Labor in order to protect about 90 million American workers who spend their time in
Work from various work hazards, from work injuries and accidents, and to provide them with safe working conditions.



OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY & the initials of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration in the US Department of Labor, which is the body responsible for HEALTH ADMINISTRATION for issuing occupational safety and health legislation and its standard specifications, as well as following up and enforcing its implementation in various work sites in the United States of America.


Code of Federal Regulation (CFR)

US federal laws and regulations are divided into 50 titles, and the laws and regulations are located under Title No. 29 (OSHA) related to occupational safety and health. Sections, (Chapters) turn into OSHA Sections, and Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Codes are located into Sections. under No. 29

OSHA laws cover several parts, the most important of which are:
(General Industry) 1. Part No. 1910 General Industry Safety Laws
(Construction) 2. Part No. 1926 Construction Safety Codes
It represents specifications for storage and handling of liquefied petroleum gases in industries
the public.


The purpose of OSHA:

For the year 1970, the Safety Administration (OSH ACT) was established in the year 1971, according to legislation in the US Department of Labor, for the following: (OSHA) and occupational health

• Encourage workers and employers to reduce work risks and implement health and safety programmes
• Keeping permanent records to follow up occupational injuries and diseases resulting from work.
• Preparing training programs to increase awareness of occupational safety and health issues.
• Preparing legislation and programs for occupational safety and health that must be implemented in all workplaces.
• Determine the responsibilities and duties of both workers and employers with regard to safety
and occupational health.

According to the fifth item of the occupational safety and health legislation, the responsibilities of the owners were determined
Work and employees are as follows:

1. Employers:
• A place and work environment must be provided for all workers that are free from any risks that may cause or may cause death or serious harm.
• Commitment to follow and implement all occupational health and safety instructions and specifications issued by OSHA.

2. Personnel:
• All workers must adhere to follow and implement occupational safety and health laws and instructions issued by OSHA.



OSHA relied on several sources to prepare and issue occupational safety and health instructions and laws, including:

1. Instructions and specifications of American national associations such as the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and the American National Standards Association (NFPA) for firefighting
2. The specifications of some civil associations, which are comprehensive and specific specifications in many fields, prepared by experts in various fields in the industry, such as the specifications (Compressed Gas Association) prepared by the Compressed Gases Association, which are related to the handling and storage of compressed gas cylinders.
3. Federal laws prevailing at the time OSHA was created.


Horizontal specifications and vertical specifications:

(Horizontal Standards) as horizontal specifications (Standards) specifications can be defined when applied, and most of the specifications are considered (vertical standards) or vertical specifications horizontal specifications, meaning that they apply to any employer and to any industry such as OSHA specifications and there are some specifications, (OSHA General Industry Standards For general industries, it is considered a vertical specification, which applies only to specific industries, such as specifications. OSHA Construction Standards


Examination of different work sites:

(OSH ACT) One of the powers of OSHA according to occupational safety and health legislation (1970) is to conduct an examination of all work sites in the United States of America in order to identify risks and to ensure the implementation and application of all occupational safety and health laws and instructions. OSHA inspectors have the right to enter any site without prior notification and conduct the examination and necessary inspection of this site.


Screening priorities:

The priorities for examining the various sites by OSHA inspectors are in the following order:

1. Locations with imminent dangers that could cause serious injury or death
In order to work to avoid it. (Imminent Danger) for workers or any immediate dangers
2. Visiting the sites where severe injuries occurred in order to investigate these incidents.
3. In the event of complaints from one of the employees that there are violations and non-application of specifications
and safety instructions.
4. Pre-programmed inspection to visit work sites to conduct routine inspection.
5. Examination to follow up the implementation of previous observations in terms of occupational safety and health.


Violations and fines:

After conducting the examination by OSHA inspectors, and in the event that there are violations of occupational safety and health regulations and laws, the employer shall be notified in writing by a letter sent by registered mail explaining the violations, and he shall be given a period to implement these violations, with the necessity for the employer to install the violation form on a bulletin board near the place where Violations occurred for a period of three days.



Other Than Serious Violations 1. Non-serious Violations

Violations that are directly related to occupational safety and health, but are unlikely to lead to death or severe injuries, and the fine is $7,000.

For each violation, this amount can be reduced to 5% of the fine value, depending on good faith and that the business owner has records free of violations.

Serious Violations 2. Serious Violations

They are violations in which death or serious injuries to workers are expected and likely, with the employer knowing the potential risks, and the fine is $7,000 for each paymentable violation.

Willful Violations 3. Willful Violations

They are the violations that the employer is aware of as a violation of the laws and instructions related to occupational safety and health and that he has not taken any measures to avoid these violations, and the fine in this case reaches 70,000 US dollars for each intentional violation, and the minimum after its reduction is 5000 US dollars for each violation.

In the case of intentional violations that lead to the death of one of the workers, the fine may reach 250,000 US dollars for each violation in the case of establishments owned by individuals, and 500,000 US dollars for large establishments, and the penalty may reach up to six months in prison.

Repeated Violations 4. Repeated Violations

Violating any of the safety instructions and laws. In the event of a re-examination, the same violations will be repeated, and the fine in this case will reach $70,000 for each violation.

Failure to 5. Abate Prior Violation

In the event of failure to implement OSHA observations and violations after the granted period has expired, the fine will be $7,000 for each day of delay after the expiry of the period.


Additional Offenses Leading to Conviction and Fine:

1- Giving false information or falsifying data provided to OSHA, a fine of $10,000 or imprisonment for six months, or both penalties.
2- Failure to install the violation form on the notice board for a period of three days, the penalty will be a fine that may reach 7000 US dollars.
3- Preventing or assaulting any OSHA inspector while performing their duties, the penalty shall be a fine of $5,000 and imprisonment for a period not exceeding three years.


Violations leading to criminal conviction in addition to financial fines:

Intentional violations that lead to the death of an employee.
Preventing, assaulting, or harassing an OSHA inspector while performing his duties.
Providing false information to OSHA.


Services performed by OSHA:

1- Providing advisory services in the field of occupational safety and health.
2- Voluntary protection program in the field of occupational safety and health.
3- Providing many training programs in the field of occupational safety and health.

What is the meaning of the word OSHA and what does it stand for?

OSHA stands for the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration.
Occupational Safety & Health Administration

If this is the full name, what is OSHA?

OSHA is the largest organization or institution in the world in the field of occupational safety and health. It specializes in setting standards for maintaining occupational safety and health for workers in all fields. It aims to ensure a safe and healthy work environment for all workers. It also contributes effectively to preserving human resources and thus raising the level of quality. in institutions.

How does OSHA play its role in maintaining occupational health and safety?

Issuing occupational health and safety legislation.
Follow-up and enforce the implementation of these legislations in the various work sites in the United States of America.
It motivates employers and workers to reduce occupational hazards and implement occupational health and safety programmes.
Penalties and fines are imposed on employers in the United States of America in the event of non-compliance with the application of legislation.
Allows for research on occupational health and safety.
These laws are binding on all companies belonging to the United States of America.

What is meant by OSHA training courses?

OSHA exerts great efforts in developing occupational safety and health legislation and is keen to help American institutions to apply them efficiently. It also contributes to spreading awareness of them all over the world through training programs such as:

30hours Occupational Safety and Health Standards for General Industry
10hours Occupational Safety and Health Standards for General Industry
30hours Occupational Safety and Health Standards for Construction Industry
10hours Occupational Safety and Health Standards for Construction Industry

Can you provide some details about these courses or courses?

1. The trainee attends the course for a period ranging from 3 to 5 days, according to the type of course.
2. At the end of the course, a written test (MCQ) will be taken (multiple choice).
3. A carnet is issued approved by OSHA and the US Department of Labor and is internationally recognized, and the trainee receives it after a period of taking the course due to the procedures of correspondence with OSHA to receive it.
4. The trainee may receive a training certificate (approved by the training body only)

The course price varies depending on several factors:

Trainer approval:

Trainers from America are accredited only by the American Labor Organization, and the number of accredited trainers in Egypt is small and does not exceed the fingers of two hands due to the difficulty of the subject. However, this does not prevent that some trainers have been revoked by OSHA for their lack of integrity in providing courses.

– Training Center.
Hospitality services during the course.
Type of training material.
– The number of trainees in the course (the official number allowed by OSHA should not exceed 30)
The language of the lectures during the course.
Obtaining a training certificate.
The accredited body for the training certificate.

Well, you say that OSHA legislation is applied by law in the United States of America only, so what is the benefit of training on it in other countries such as the Arab countries?

Whereas, this question is always asked among those wishing to work in the field of occupational safety and health, since OSHA legislation is enforced by law in the United States of America.

Never, but it represents a summary of directives for preserving occupational safety and health for workers in various fields, and therefore many international institutions outside the United States seek help from or follow these legislations in order to raise their level of quality.

What organizations follow OSHA regulations outside the United States?

Oil and gas companies.
Petrochemical industries companies.
Health care institutions.
Spinning and weaving companies.
Metallurgical companies.
Cement companies.
Food industry companies.

Who are the beneficiaries of OSHA training courses?

Occupational health, safety and environment officials in various companies, hospitals, health care, educational and hotel institutions.
Heads of engineering sectors in different companies.
Engineers in all disciplines (civil, electricity, ……. etc.).
Workers in oil and gas companies and petrochemical industries.
Quality officials in different companies and the medical sector.
Workers and technicians.
Those wishing to work in the field of occupational health and safety.
Doctors and nurses.

What are the objectives of these courses?

1. Developing health and environmental awareness of workers and employees.
2. Achieving safety in the work environment.
3. Identify the risks that may be exposed to in the work environment and how to prevent them.
4. Reducing and limiting occupational diseases resulting from work.
5. Reducing work injuries resulting from various accidents by studying their causes and avoiding them.
6. How to prevent fires and disasters.
7. Preserving the environment and safe disposal of waste.
We also mention the development and growth of Osha

• In 1971, there were about 56 million workers working in 3.5 million establishments.
• In 2003, there are 115 million workers working in 7 million establishments.
• Since the establishment of OSHA in 1971 until (2003), the rates of injuries and diseases decreased by 42%, and the rates of deaths and serious accidents decreased by 62%.


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