The subject of engineering measurements error analysis (R & R) can be one of the professional tools that help the decision-maker in various industrial establishments to accurately estimate the situation and the integrity of his executive decisions. To the equipment used for the measurement (Ev) or to the technicians carrying out the measurement (Av) or the part to be measured (Pv)
Reparability and Reproducibility are methods for measuring accuracy, particularly in the fields of chemistry and engineering. Generally, scientists perform the same experiment multiple times to confirm their findings. These results may show variation. In the context of an experiment, reproducibility measures the variance in measurements made by a single instrument or person under the same conditions, while reproducibility measures whether an entire study or experiment can be reproduced in its entirety.
Within scientific writing processes, reproducibility and repeatability are often reported as standard deviation. The article From Crude Mixture to Pure Compound – Autorefining with Ease discusses how scientists and researchers demonstrate reproducibility and reproducibility in more detail.
What is the frequency?
Repetition practices were introduced by scholars Bland and Altman. For the frequency to be determined, the following conditions must be present: same location; the same measurement procedure; the same observer; the same measuring instrument used under the same conditions; Repeat over a short period of time. What is known as the “repeatability coefficient” is a measure of accuracy, which refers to the absolute difference between a pair of repeated test results.
What is reproducibility?
On the other hand, reproducibility refers to the degree of concordance between the results of experiments conducted by different individuals, in different locations, with different instruments. Simply put, it measures our ability to replicate the results of others. Through their extensive research, controlled laboratory inter-laboratory testing programs can determine reproducibility. The article discusses precise low-temperature control that improves reaction reproducibility challenges related to reproducibility in more detail.
One of the most successful known methods is Reparability and Reproducibility, or R&RTool, which is one of the elements of the quality improvement system known as 6 sigma.
In general, errors in engineering measurements can be due to the following reasons:
1- Partial difference: – From piece to piece – raw materials from place to place (quantity to quantity) piece area, from area to area.
2- The difference in tools: – From one tool to another, from equipment to equipment over time.
3- The human difference: From operator to operator, from supervisor to supervisor, from leadership to leadership.
4- Time difference: Cutting samples from time to time, from hour to hour, from one work shift to another work shift (shift), from day to day, from week to week, from month to month, from year to year, and from work period to other rest times.
5- The difference in location: – from one machine to another – from one building to another – from one country to another,
Accordingly, the values of the total differences (Tv) of the R&R system are compared with specific (MSA), target, and standard values – Bench-maker)), in addition to calculating a set of means to evaluate the accuracy of the measurements, including calculating the linearity of the distribution of decisions known as Linearity, which refers to Measurements have varied invariably from one end of the measurement space to the other.
Based on the results of the analysis of measurement errors, the reasons for measurement errors can be attributed to:
1- The equipment is not calibrated at the upper and lower ends of the operating range.
2- An error in the minimum or upper limit of the master’s degree.
3- Worn out or worn out equipment.
4- Possibility of having a poor internal design in the equipment