Fundamentals of industrial engineering
The work related to the profession of industrial engineering is considered one of the oldest engineering works that man has undertaken. The use of the functions of this profession can be traced in all ages, from the beginning of the arrow and spear industry in ancient times, through the agricultural renaissance and the eras of metal extraction. These jobs were used in all countries of ancient civilizations in many fields of designing, organizing and scheduling elements of work and equipping it, such as building pyramids, ships and chariots, manufacturing paper and textiles, choosing the locations of industries and cities, and storing and scheduling materials. It should be noted that in the Holy Qur’an there are multiple references to the use of industrial engineering functions, for example, God Almighty says: (And prepare for them whatever you can of strength and horse ties, with which you will frighten the enemy of God and your enemy and others besides them. You will not teach them. God knows them. And whatever you spend in Allah’s way will be fulfilled for you, and you will not be wronged (Surat Al-Anfal). Where this verse urges advance planning in preparation.
Likewise, the Almighty said: (He said: You sow seven years diligently, and what you reap, so leave it in its ears except a little of what you eat, then there will come after that seven hardy people who will eat what you have given them, except a little of what you store) [Surah Yusuf – verse 48-49]. In this verse there is a sign To storage methods, production scheduling, and resource distribution among people.In the Holy Qur’an there are many indications and references to the importance of industry and the sequence of its operations.
Industrial and management engineering is a broad professional field concerned with the study, analysis, design and management of integrated systems and processes to organize basic resources in production – people, materials, equipment and information – to achieve specific goals. The increasing complexity of modern industrial and service organizations and their emphasis on quality, increasing efficiency and productivity through automation and computing processes has increased the demand for a new generation of engineering graduates.
Industrial. Although this discipline is relatively recent development over the past three decades, it has already become one of the largest and fastest growing engineering fields.
Companies differ in what they expect of the tasks that industrial and systems engineers can do. While most of the tasks of industrial engineers are concentrated at the level of the production process, some companies noticed the wide skills enjoyed by these people and began to expand their tasks at the level of designing administrative systems. In later years, when the flavor of systems engineering was added to industrial engineering, companies made room for industrial engineers and systems engineers to work at the general level of companies.
Perhaps what distinguishes industrial engineering from other fields in engineering is the comprehensiveness of its applications in industrial systems that produce goods or those that produce services.
The fields of work for the industrial engineer are never limited, as the specialty of industrial engineering includes economics, management, increasing income, and solving problems related to production, as the job opportunities for the industrial engineer are not limited to industry and factories such as car and aircraft factories, electrical and electronic devices, cement and chemicals, but even the banking sector, tourism and hospitals ports, and the industrial engineer can also work in most government sectors.
Industrial engineers are responsible for the most complete integrated technological systems. They have the ability to develop scientific solutions to most real problems that they encounter.
Industrial engineers use computers as a tool to solve complex problems and to work with powerful and sophisticated computer programs. They use these skills to design, predict and even evaluate the performance of all kinds of complex systems.
With the beginning of the modern industrial renaissance, many industrial engineering functions were used, such as locating factories, internal organization of factories, production planning and scheduling, followed by the birth of the Society of Industrial Engineers in the United States immediately after World War II. The industrial engineering profession has gone through many professional stages in which pioneers and thinkers contributed:
It was characterized by dividing the production methods into multiple units of the production process, each unit being performed by labour
specialized for this unit, which resulted in raising production efficiency.
It was distinguished by setting steps for the unit of the productive and mathematical process in a logical and sequential manner, which results in designs
New to many production systems.
Product standardization stage: Standardization
This stage included the possibility of using products in an interchangeable and identical way and standardizing their technical specifications, which resulted in
About standardization of industrial tools and equipment.
Mass production stage
This stage included finding advanced equipment and methods to ensure the production of large quantities in a flowing manner.
It guarantees an increase in production efficiency at competitive prices.
Scientific management stage: Scientific Management
This stage relied on design, measurement, planning and scheduling in the operation of industrial production systems and their technologies. It included many engineering professional tasks on which the industrial work was built, and the most important of these tasks are: 1- Studying production methods and methods (Process Design)
2- Work Design & Time and Motion Study
The stage of industrial integration: Industrial Integration using technical methods and modern mathematical methods for operations research, statistics and social sciences.
Humanity and psychology associated with industrial work and its conditions and technical management have introduced several concepts for the integration of the various elements of the industrial system. These concepts brought about radical changes in the design and operation of these systems.
● The concept of the human and psychological factor (Human Factor), which focuses on the human role in work to raise efficiency, which led to a reconsideration of the concept of specialization and a comprehensive rehabilitation of workers.
● The concept of flexible automation, which is concerned with the integration of work between man and machine to complement the industrial capabilities of production methods and means to lead to raising efficiency, quality, performance and technical skills.
and improve working conditions.
The concept of Just in Time Production, which means working to produce what is required.
On time and in the right quantity, which leads to cost reduction and improved quality. The concept of Total Quality Management and is related to the integration of Tahseen’s work
And the development of quality for all groups operating in the industrial system from senior management to production units.
The concept of “Business Process Reengineering” means focusing on the development and restructuring of work-related processes to improve performance measures and find radical solutions to its problems.
One of the engineering branches distinguished by the rapid growth and development, which has become the basis of the economic construction of the industrially developed countries, due to its direct relationship with the various industrial systems and its productive elements of individuals, materials, equipment, technologies, and capital…. On the other hand, it can be considered that the industrial engineer in a brief word is a bridge between management and its objectives, and the profession of industrial engineering is defined according to the Institute of Industrial Engineers (Institute of
(Industrial Engineers) as:
That profession that is concerned with the design, development and construction of integrated systems of people, materials and equipment, based on specialized knowledge and skill in integrated mathematical, physical and social sciences with a focus on engineering foundations and methods of engineering analysis and design with the aim of anticipating and evaluating the results that can be obtained from these systems.
Industrial engineering is one of the fields of engineering, and one of its advantages is that it has a field in many different companies and factories such as airlines, banks, hospitals, oil companies, etc. It is considered a general field to achieve the goals of management through preparing plans, good organization, maintaining and applying quality, dealing with workers, and others. It is possible for the industrial engineer to reach administrative positions because his work is close to the administration and its tasks. There are many definitions of industrial engineering, but there are main lines for it:
ï Develop ways to make the best use of people, machines, tools, etc. in order to reach the best economical ways to provide a service or manufacture a product.
ï Industrial engineering is concerned with improving and developing integrated systems of people, tools, and energy, and it requires knowledge of mathematics and social sciences.
In an era of accelerated steps, products or services of poor quality are not accepted. Competition in the local and international markets does not depend on the dreams of dreamers, but depends on the amount of effort exerted in order to reach the satisfaction of the customer (customer) and in order to reach the highest levels of quality. And if this institution is not Or the company offers the highest levels of quality, it will simply be provided by others. Industrial engineering is one of its main goals is to implement what the management wants at the lowest cost and highest quality.