First aid for wounds and burns

First aid aims to: preserve the life of the injured, prevent the deterioration of his condition, and help him recover. This is why a paramedic must be fully qualified to be awarded this honor. In this article, we will discuss first aid for burns and wounds, which we encounter almost on a daily basis.

There are three degrees of burns:

First degree burns:

They lead to pain with redness of the skin and mild swelling.

Second degree burns:

It leads to severe pain in addition to the appearance of bubbles in the skin with a visible tumor.

Third degree burns:

The injured person loses sense of pain in the area of injury as a result of damage to the sensory nerves during the fire, and the appearance of the skin may appear charred.

As for the causes of burns, they are not necessarily limited to flames. The burn may be the result of hot liquids such as hot water, chemicals, or electric shock.

First aid for burns varies according to their degree and how they are injured. However, there are fixed basic principles for dealing with burns, such as removing clothes, rings, and accessories from the burn area quickly, before the area swells and becomes impossible to remove.

In cases of minor burns:

Resulting from burning with a dry flame from the cooker or hot liquids, the burned part must be passed under water for 10 minutes after removing clothes and accessories from the burn area.

In cases of clothing on fire:

The casualty must be undressed and then covered with a blanket to isolate the fire from oxygen, or immerse him in plenty of water, if available. After the fire is extinguished, the injured person should be covered with clean clothes to prevent contamination. Avoid popping bubbles resulting from the burn because they contain a large amount of immune cells that protect the patient from infection.

Avoid removing any cloth attached to the affected area so as not to cause damage to the rest of the skin layers.

In cases of burns caused by chemicals:

The injured person must be moved from his place, all clothes removed from him, and abundant water should be passed over the area of ​​the injury, as the water helps dilute the chemical substance and thus reduce the damage caused by it. Be careful not to neutralize the chemical – for example, do not neutralize the acid with an alkali – because this increases the extent of the injury.

First aid for burns resulting from electric shock:

The electrical connection must be removed before touching the injured person, and then ensure the integrity of the pulse and breathing stream. You can warm the injured person if you discover that he needs to do so, and call an ambulance.

There are some signs that indicate the seriousness of a burn, so you should pay attention to them and seek help immediately:

  • Any third-degree burn (a burn with significant swelling and loss of pain in the area of injury, and charring of the skin).
  • Burns in highly sensitive areas such as the face, eyes and genital areas.
  • A deterioration in the degree of consciousness of the patient or loss of consciousness.
  • Second degree burns that cover more than 20% of the body.
  • Injury to the elderly or children – regardless of the degree of burn – due to their poor endurance.

Second: First Aid for Wounds:

Wounds are divided into two types:

open wounds:

It is the one in which a cut occurs in the outer skin and is often accompanied by external bleeding. This type of wound may occur as a result of falling to the ground or rubbing against rough objects in what is known as abrasions. It may be the result of cutting using sharp objects such as knives, in what is known as cut wounds.

Open wounds may be more severe, such as exudative wounds resulting from accidents, animal bites, or firecrackers, and these wounds are accompanied by separation or tearing of the affected tissues with heavy bleeding.

How to deal with this type of wound:

For small open wounds:

Wash the wound well with soap and water and disinfect it with an antiseptic such as betadine to avoid infection.
Put a dressing on the wound with direct pressure on it.
The wound may be covered with gauze and then with tarpaulin.

In cases of large open wounds:

Put a dressing on the wound with direct pressure on it.
Raise the injured part (leg or arm) above the level of the heart. To reduce the amount of blood lost.
Put a pressure bandage on the wound area to reduce the amount of blood reaching the area of injury.
In case of profuse blood loss, place a bandage over the first bandage and do not attempt to replace the cap; Because the platelets begin to form around the compressive ligament, and thus the amount of blood lost gradually decreases. In the event that you remove the first cover, you remove the formed platelets with it!
In the event of profuse bleeding, try to press on the main artery that feeds the area with blood. For example, if the bleeding is from the arm, try pressing the brachial artery. If the bleeding is from the leg, try pressing the femoral artery.
An ambulance should be called, or the injured person should be taken to a medical center to have the wound stitched

In the case of exudative wounds (interruption – separation of the organ):

The cut part must be placed in a clean bag, then the bag should be placed in another bag filled with ice, and finally the injured person should be transferred to the nearest equipped hospital to follow up on the case.

closed wounds:

Closed wounds are those resulting from impact with a machine or a solid object – forming a bruise – without injuring the outer skin, or the damage to the skin is simple; These wounds are infected with swelling and redness in the area of ​​the injury, and internal bleeding may occur in the blood vessels under the skin.

How to deal with this type of wound:

Elevate the injured arm or leg.
Placing cold water or ice compresses over the injury area.

examine the patient well; In the event of suspected fractures or internal bleeding, the injured person must be taken to the nearest hospital immediately so that the situation does not worsen.


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