Definition of ISO

International Organization for Standardization

It is the International Organization for Standardization, and it is a global federation headquartered in Geneva that includes in its membership more than 90 national standardization bodies. Its abbreviation (ISO) came based on the Greek word “ISOS” which means “equal.” In 1987 AD The authority has issued a set of ISO 9000 certificates indicating the implementation of the quality assurance system in the facility that obtained it. It works to ensure and confirm the ability of the facility that it obtains to meet the required quality specifications in the product it offers, and it also indicates that its performance reaches the negotiating levels, as it consists of four certificates, each of which applies to a specific type of facility. Requirements A standardized, or mutually acceptable, system for evaluating the quality of mutual products and services. This system has been developed by the International Standards Organization, which is one of the specialized agencies of the United Nations located in Geneva, which works in the field of global standardization of various commodities, products, and materials. It has recently established foundations, controls, and standards for a quality mark within a comprehensive quality program to be a means of promotion in the field of manufacturing and international trade.

The ISO 9000 series includes a coherent set of general quality assurance standards applicable to any company, whether large, medium or small. It can be used with any existing system and helps the company to reduce internal costs, increase quality, efficiency and productivity, and serve as a step towards total quality and its continuous improvement. The ISO 9000 series is not a set of product specifications and does not cover specific industry standards. Each document classifies a quality model to be used in different applications.

1- ISO 9001 is the most comprehensive document in the series applied to companies engaged in design, development, manufacturing, arrangement and services. It specifies a quality system for use when contracts require an explanation of the supplier’s ability to design, manufacture, install and service the product. ISO 9001 also deals with areas such as error detection and correction during production, personnel training, documentation and data control.

2- ISO 9002 on goods that do not require design and quality assurance in production, installation and service.

3- ISO 9003 on all companies and specifies the quality system model for final inspection and testing,

4 – ISO 9004 quality elements referred to in the previous documents in greater detail and provides guidelines for quality management and the elements of the quality system required for the development and implementation of the quality system.


And this organization carries out the task of developing specifications in all fields except for the technical specifications of products for the electrical and electronic engineering industries, which are the responsibility of another organization, the International Technical Electronics Committee. (EIC)
ISO has more than 182 technical committees, each committee responsible for developing a specific set of specifications.

Benefits of obtaining the ISO certificate:

1- The ISO system itself is a tool or means to correct errors and ensure that they are not repeated.

2- A system that defines administrative responsibilities, powers, and accountability for errors.

3- Establish a statistical method that enables the establishment to evaluate and understand the information systems within the establishment that help make the right decisions.

4- A system of control and inspection to ensure the extent to which quality conditions are met to meet the desires of customers and consumers.

5- Obtaining this certificate grants the facility that obtained it entry with confidence to the global markets

6- Facilitating trade exchange and unifying the patterns and principles used around the world.

7- Increasing the company’s competitiveness by improving the company’s image to the consumer and helping it launch its products in the global markets and aligning them with the requirements of the World Trade Organization.

8- In the case of applying the ISO system to institutions, there are many advantages that are reflected positively on the level of performance of the institution, where the waste in the capabilities of the institution is significantly reduced in terms of materials and the time of workers, and the distinguished administrative system through ISO contributes to enabling the institution to Analyzing the problems it faces and making it deal with them through corrective and preventive measures in order to prevent such problems from occurring in the future. The system also enables all employees of the organization to actively participate in the management of the organization, for further development and improvement, each in his field, which leaves a positive psychological impact on the workers. The internal audit and the reviews of the organized management that are at the heart of the ISO system make the system work to serve the organization and not the other way around, in addition to that the system contributes to linking all departments of the organization and makes its work harmonious instead of having an isolated administrative system for each department or department, and this thus leads to more discipline and accurate analysis For the problems that can occur, this is in addition to that the application of the system reduces administrative bureaucracy to a large extent and gets rid of many repetitive and sometimes conflicting procedures and adds important and accurate touches in different fields and analyzes and arranges support systems such as financial management, procurement, contracts, security and safety,, etc. The question now arises, is ISO an end in itself or a means to achieve total quality? There is no doubt that the means and the end are relative words, and the use of either of them to denote the required matter depends mainly on the topic in question and on the person concerned. What others consider an end can be viewed as a means and vice versa. In fact, the ISO 9000 certificate, like the scientific certificates that simple people consider an end in itself, while opinion-holders view it as a means of research and collection, and it is good to recall here that there is a fundamental difference between the two certificates. The ISO certificate is granted to institutions and companies and may not be granted to individuals while it is granted Scientific certificates are for individuals and may not be granted to institutions. In fact, the ISO certification is a means to an end, as it is a means to my approach

Controlling and developing the work, reducing the defective, reducing the cost of production, and thus achieving comprehensive quality, which is ultimately also a means to gain consumer satisfaction, which reflects positively on the success of the institution or company.

Total quality has become a goal for all ambitious institutions that look up from their feet and look at the honorable future with the perspective of the times and the dynamism of the modern global economy. It is certain that the most important characteristic of the theories, systems and mechanisms of total quality is that it focuses on the concept of survival, continuity and development by anticipating future prospects rather than quick, hasty profit. Reality and experience have proven that total quality, with its concept, dimensions, and scientific and professional origins, is the weapon by which one can deal with the developments of the times and its developments, which helped the major global productive institutions to gain the lead, gain competition, and sit on a solid base in the international global market. Based on this principle and considering it as a basis and a goal upon which the structuring of its business and production is built, and despite the ambiguity and difficulties surrounding the ISO systems, Saudi production and service institutions must arm themselves with it, not only as a certificate or passport that facilitates the product to cross international borders, but also because it is a mechanism that helps the institution Or the company to reform itself, develop its performance, achieve its goals, and keep pace with the current developments under the World Trade Organization, especially since it is indispensable to enter the international arena and tame oneself to coexist with it, for reasons including that the whole world has become an integrated market and that developing countries are closely linked to the market and there is no longer An option, and that developing countries depend on the global economy in order to sell their goods and to obtain capital, technology and expertise, and from all of the above it is clear that countries must keep pace as a result of the good fruits that can be reaped by jumping on the train of the World Trade Organization, which is reflected positively in enhancing the competitiveness of products Patriotism in international markets, increasing industrial exports, protecting national products from arbitrary measures that foreign countries may impose, ensuring non-discrimination against national exports in foreign markets in favor of other products, creating appropriate conditions for new investments and investment expansion, and thus strengthening the economy and raising its level of growth.

«ISO» International Organization for Standardization. It means the International Organization for Standardization. In 1987, the Authority issued a set of ISO 9000 certificates, which are specifications related to the management systems of industrial or service facilities. They give the minimum levels of controls and rules that must be adhered to in order to ensure continuous control of the level of product quality.

Since that period, it was amended until it was issued in its final form in 1994 to be in line with the requirements and needs of quality management systems applied globally.

The ISO organization undertakes the task of developing specifications in all fields, with the exception of technical specifications for products for the electrical and electronic engineering industries, which are the responsibility of another organization founded in 1906, which is the International Technical Electronics Committee. (EIC)
ISO has more than 182 technical committees, each committee responsible for developing a specific set of specifications.

An important point must be emphasized:
The most common (ISO 9000 family) is not a product specification, but rather a set of specifications that give requirements and guidelines necessary to establish quality management systems aimed at providing products or services that meet specific requirements and to evaluate these systems.
That is, it is the quality management system in the organization that can achieve conformity with these specifications, and not the products it offers.
The ISO is a flexible system aimed at ensuring the satisfaction of the needs and desires of customers and consumers through strict control over product quality and adherence to it as long as the factory or institution remains in existence and produces.
ISO can be considered as one of the steps directed towards consumer satisfaction.

ISO 9000
It is a set of certificates indicating the implementation of the quality assurance system in the institution that obtained it. It works to ensure assurance to a third party of the ability of the institution it obtains to meet the required specifications for quality in the product it offers, and also indicates that its performance reaches the negotiating levels, as it consists of three certificates, each of which applies to a specific type of institution.
The ISO 9001 quality certificate applies to organizations that design, produce and sell their products
The ISO 9002 quality certificate applies to institutions that produce and sell their products
– ISO 9003 quality certificate applies to organizations that sell products only

Who is entitled to request an ISO certificate?
The ISO 9000 family of specifications are general specifications that can be used by any organization, whether large or small, production or service, or providing special products or manufactured materials.

What are the fields in which an ISO certificate can be obtained????
There are no limits or limits for companies, institutions, bodies and services that can obtain an ISO certificate, as it is divided, as will be detailed, into several classifications (ISO 9000 and its divisions and ISO 1400 related to the environment)…

The diversity of the ISO categories made them suitable for all sectors and services, starting from a commercial store, the number of employees in which may not exceed two people ….. to levels that reach governments and state institutions …. All of them can obtain one of the ISO certificates (if they adhere to the standards required of course)….

Interest in international standards ISO 9000 has increased, and interest in these systems has increased, as the number of institutions that have obtained it at the international level has reached about half a million industrial and service institutions.

ISO and Arab countries:

The characteristic of the economy today is globalization, openness and no borders, whether spatial or temporal, and the Arab countries are part of this world and an important part.

Due to the natural resources and industrial raw materials it contains, and due to the availability of the most important resource, which is the human resource capable of carrying out these economic and service activities and others.

And since openness is a feature of this era, Arab countries must have an influential role and share, both at the level of governments and individuals, and what some governments, companies and institutions are now taking in terms of procedures and steps indicates awareness and awareness of the importance of active participation.

One of the characteristics of this era is globalization, and one of the most important things dictated or required by globalization is the creation and emergence of parties that carry out their activities on a global level and are characterized by legitimacy and acceptance. These entities have become present in every field of specialization or field of work. And they are either in the form of associations, bodies, federations, ……. and others.

The Arab countries have realized this aspect and have become parallel bodies to these global bodies, so as to unite the efforts of the relevant Arab bodies, whether at the governmental or private sector levels. As a result of their hard work, some of these entities have gained the status of legitimacy and accreditation from those international institutions. There are many examples of this……. But what concerns us here is the international organization ISO.

This is in appreciation of the efforts of the Arab countries and their endeavor to find a role for them globally:
The international ISO organization chose Cairo to hold the meetings of the international ISO organization to lay the foundations for the ISO specifications for the year 2005 and draw the general framework for quality in the light of developments in international markets and technological developments. Egypt is a member of the board of directors of the international organization, which consists of only 18 countries out of a total of 130 member states
The ISO series of international standards is nothing but the product of the experiences of Japanese and American companies that led to the adoption of a set of standards to ensure the application of the following principles…

1. Customer care.
2. Adopt an effective leadership style.
3. Participation of employees in decision-making.
4. Base decisions on facts.
5. Operations management.
6. Interconnected system management.
7. Building a beneficial relationship with suppliers.
8. Continuous development.


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