The deep knowledge of the American scientist Edward Deming about knowing the system and knowing the difference, and I remind you that this system has been an impressive success in helping Americans and Europeans in developing their management systems and setting firm and solid foundations and rules for development and improvement in management and quality systems in the whole world and that this system is still in place and applied and will continue for a long time Coming due to the strategic and long-term dimension in the thought on which it was based, and that the one who developed it was a scientist who was looking at the near and distant future and wanted to develop a theory that would continue to be applied for a whole century, which is the twenty-first century. In fact, Dr. Deming excelled in this theory and identified four areas, or to transfer parts Four to work on and apply in all organizations and companies that seek to develop and stay in the world of economy and business. The four areas were:
1- Knowledge of a system
2- Knowledge of variation
3- Theory of knowledge
4- Knowledge of psychology
We continue today together by presenting the third part of the system of deep knowledge, which is Theory of Knowledge, in the following sequence:
1- Knowledge Comes from Theory
4- Deming Cycle The PDSA Cycle
First: Knowledge Comes from Theory
The theory of knowledge, which is the natural development in the circle of the deep knowledge system. After we defined our system and set the goals of the system and then discussed at length the variation and that it is absent strongly present in every existing system, we must talk about how to work within this system, with regard to trying to change or improve it. And I will start with you from this hypothesis, which is that there is a change that occurred in one of the system’s processes, and that this change resulted in a decrease in the process variance, which led to an improvement in the quality of its output. Yes, you may be happy with this change and feel with it an improvement in the quality of the product, and it may save in its cost. . But a moment, please, stop with me on this question. Why did this change happen? In other words, why did this change in the process cause a decrease in variance? Perhaps your answer was “I don’t know” and it is nothing more than that you tried this action or act and a change occurred. Rather, you may not have done anything in the first place, but this change occurred and you do not know what caused it. The second question is, did you learn anything from this situation? Of course, we knew that there was a change that took place, and this change resulted in an improvement in the performance of the operation, but note with me that this change occurred without your knowledge, and if you ask yourself the question secondly why this change happened, you will find the same response every time.
Often we may make improvements to a process despite not knowing well the process, which can be likened to a black box that you do not know what is inside, and this improvement may be based on the principle of trial and error, but do you really know anything about this the operation? Many of us may answer yes and say, of course, I know everything about my process, which I am working on. Rather, we may say that we know every small and big thing about it, but believe me if I told you that all you know is only a small amount of information (Information) about the process and you do not have knowledge (knowledge). ) about the operation.
Come with me, we will continue to learn more about the topic and live
More with Deming’s creativity in his theory and see what he said in
The third part, which is epistemology, says Deming how
We build knowledge about a process and how not to leave it to chance
If this coincidence occurs, then how do we analyze it?
And discover why it made a change in the process will
We answer all these questions if we have knowledge
real about that process, said d. Deming
(Knowledge comes from theory) in order to learn everything
About the process first you must have a theory, without it
Theory We can’t make any predictions about what that might be
It is happening. So theory is the basic condition for learning
The first example here: In one of the fruit distribution centers, a problem occurred, which is that the harvested fruit supplied to the center’s store is not valid. By studying the problem, the reason was determined, which is the time during which daily orders for supply are printed in the store, as there are often a large number of orders that come at one time. It is late in the morning and it is required to supply it in the afternoon directly, as the workers go to harvest the fruits from the fields and they are under pressure to quickly complete the task and implement the required orders. Therefore, the workers are hasty in picking the fruits so that they can pack them and prepare them for delivery.
So the theory here (that the fruit is not valid due to the arrival of daily orders for orders late in the morning with the inevitability of supplying them in the afternoon) and that most of the complaints come from the orders that were made during this time and accordingly we can collect data to determine whether this hypothesis is true or not , If it is proven to us that this hypothesis is correct, the theory is correct, but if the opposite is true, then we must review the process again, but note that we have learned things about the process and we are looking for a new theory to study the problem.
The second example: In one of the steel factories, the management wanted to improve the speed of delivery of its products to customers. Accordingly, the management determined its basic approach that each department has to move its product as quickly as possible, and that the department that has a delay is identified and given a red card. So what was the result? Delivery time has not been improved, what is the reason? One of the main reasons is that there is no just-in-time theory the company operates on that applies to departments. And the theory now must be developed so as to identify the obstacle in operating the product in the department, as well as setting a schedule for operating the product in each department, with a focus on the application of this theory only in the departments that received a red card. And if this theory is proven correct and the process is improved, then its application is approved, otherwise the research begins with M
The main reason we need theory is to be able to predict. And a process that is statistically disciplined can have a prediction about it to run under the same level of dispersion in the near term. Valid at the times specified by the problem in the orders printed in the store.
Dr. Deming says that the theory of knowledge teaches us that if a statement carries knowledge and anticipates future results and with the risk that it may be wrong and that it is appropriate without taking into account the observations of failure in the past, this confirms that this statement is information, not knowledge, and without theory. There is no effective way to use the information. For example, an experiment begins with a theory or hypothesis, and this hypothesis or theory is put to a test to prove its validity by analyzing and interpreting the results of the experiment, and then we have to accept or reject this theory, and therefore we look for a new hypothesis or theory in case of rejection, and the following figure shows these steps
Fourth: The PDSA Cycle
The previous steps to conduct the experiment are very similar to The PDSA Cycle of the scientist Walter Shewhart, who was called the father of statistical control of the process, but this cycle is often referred to
By Deming cycle, although Dr. Deming himself credits Walter Shewhart for it, and in recognition of Walter Shewhart’s beauty in creating and using it.
Here are the four steps of this course:
1- Plan: plans to bring about a change in the process
With the aim of continuous improvement.
2- Do: Implement the planned change
3- Study: Study the results to determine whether
Change led to improvement by analyzing the implementation results.
4- Act: If the change is appropriate and an improvement is achieved
I adopt it, otherwise I assume a new change and start with it again and even
If the change is appropriate, then continue the course for Hussein
continuous in the process.
With work on this course it will be very important to start as
Remind us of a theory centered on why we want to implement this change
If we do not have a theory, then in this case we will not be able to know
Why did this change take place, if it had already taken place, and we did not know why it did not take place
If not achieved.
In order not to complicate matters too much, my brother who is interested in the theory of knowledge, I will answer your question, what should I do if I develop a theory or hypothesis and it is proven to fail? At least you will rule out the hypothesis or theory when you think again and make sure that the matter will not take long for you and you will definitely reach your goal and the result that satisfies you and our way in that is that management must teach the skills and methods of solving problems to all its employees so that they can then use their personal skill in dealing with these methods to solve the problems they face.
Among the modern tools for solving problems are:
Cause and effect diagram (fishbone diagram)
Scattering and scattering curves
Decision making methods
Design experiments and many other tools.
Management must teach process theory to all its employees
Because the employee will not be able to perform his job effectively and efficiently if he does not have an understanding of why he is performing it, noting that this work is one of the functions of management and a fundamental role in improving the system, but also in improving operations. Let us look at the following example to clarify this role:
When we look at the reverse reaction between a metal such as silver and an acidic substance to give us salt + water, as in the following equation: Ag + Acid—Salt + H2o
The worker who performs this process must understand this reaction and what factors affect it. For example, increasing the temperature of the reaction will automatically lead to the production of (salt + water). If we want to get salt only as a final product for this reaction, we must determine what it is The temperature needed and also determine how we remove the water to prevent a reverse reaction. But often the worker involved in this process is not aware of the importance of controlling these factors governing the reaction, and more importantly, the worker may not know the importance and reason for removing water in this reaction, so how can such a worker make suggestions to improve the process, and this is the point Our topic is about knowing the theory from the system of deep knowledge, which is that the employee who has complete knowledge of the process that he performs and knows why he performs it and how to perform it and also understands the theory of work and on the basis of which he accomplishes his work only this employee can help you to develop and improve the process.
Fifth: the summary
Epistemology explains a system of learning and demonstrates the importance and use of theory to enhance that learning.
Dr. Deming recommended using The PDSA Cycle as an effective model for achieving the learning goal
This part of the deep knowledge system is the most difficult part in understanding and assimilating in organizations, applying it, and communicating it to the workers and employees in it.
Many of us fail to predict whether his theory or hypothesis will come true, and if it does, he may not know why it came true
Dr. Deming said that management is the ability to predict and anticipate what will happen, and when this is well understood, it will be easy to understand the impact of knowledge of theory on the other three areas of the deep knowledge system.
When you can explore the sound basis for making predictions and realize that you must understand the theory that you use to make this prediction, your vision of the process will be complete and you can change, develop and improve it, but on a clear basis and a solid ground of knowledge.
Try to answer this question: Why does he believe that sales discounts make customers buy? Take a moment and don’t rush to answer and ask yourself what is the theory on which this belief is based? bodice
If you search and apply the theory of knowledge, you will find results that may surprise and amaze you.
Don’t make a change or start improving until you have a theory that allows you to predict what might happen and use The PDSA Cycle. See if your prediction is true. If not, you need to change your theory, but at least you have some things and results. I learned it.
There is no knowledge without theory, and no theory without observation
Finally, I present to you this strange example, which was given to us by one of the doctors who was teaching us the subject of statistics, and it is a somewhat strange example. Young researchers in the United States went to the American space agency NASA and told them that he had an idea or a very important theory that would help them a lot, so what were the officials of the agency except that they welcomed this young man and looked at his idea and gave him in exchange for this idea a hundred thousand US dollars ‘imagine what it was This idea or theory that deserves this large amount. He simply told them that his idea deals with creating a new way to transfer information and exchange it between employees by wire or wireless communications, or by computer, or by satellite, or by laser beams. It was thrown between the employees while they were at their desks and in their places. The most surprising thing is that he did not provide them with more than that, just an abstract idea without clarification, explanation, or means. He only gave them a theory and left them the freedom to research and apply it, and he deserved to be given a hundred thousand dollars. Excuse me, brothers, if Suleiman did it, a letter or You did it and presented it to a scientific or research body you have, so what do you imagine to respond to you? I will not answer and I will not wait for an answer from you. The answer is known and indicates the difference between those who value science and respect trivial ideas and those who claim day and night their appreciation for science and scientists and bury all inventions and scientific research in drawers and bureaus of backwardness and routine and leave the best The youth of the nation go to the West, which appreciates not only inventions and scientific research, but also the triviality of thought, even if it is a flying saucer through which information is transmitted.
Today I have reached the end of the third part of the system of knowledge, which is the theory of knowledge, in the hope that I will meet you in the fourth part, which is knowledge of the psychological, which may be the last part or will be followed by a fifth and final part in which we talk about the entire system of knowledge and try to link between its four parts.