The development of the air transport industry was accompanied by technical and administrative progress and development accompanied by a significant development in risk management, which led to a remarkable improvement in safety rates. The interest of the air transport industry in aviation safety is due to two important matters. Despite the insurance coverage of all accidents and dangers, the repercussions of the shake-up of confidence remain without borders, as it severely affects the balance of achievements of public opinion, and the repercussions remain for a long period of time, causing great losses that may topple airlines, departments and managers.
The air transport industry and its components such as airlines and airports … operate under the umbrella of international safety standards that include the air and ground sides of airports; The air side of the corridors for the landing and take-off of aircraft and … and the ground side of the halls for travel and the arrival of passengers, goods and mail. And also the fields of operation, maintenance, design, quality, safety and the environment, whether what is called the environment in its external, global or national concept, and the internal, functional or professional.
Attention to the work environment includes concern and commitment to the safety and security requirements of work sites such as airstrips, halls, halls, offices, centers, warehouses, shops, workshops, and … This interest is due to a greater interest in the focus of work and operation, which is the human being in all functional and professional positions in a way that preserves his health and provides the work system with the highest degrees Performance and giving, and leads to reducing accidents and incidents to the lowest rates in a way that preserves the character and reputation of air transport as the most attractive, safe and secure means of transport.
The air transport industry has a distinguished balance for safety. Assuming that there is a passenger who travels by air every day, he is not expected to meet an air accident 30 thousand years ago, and according to one of the criteria for accident insurance, which is the number of deaths per billion kilometers, air transport comes in the first place with a number of 0.05. Then buses 0.4, then railways 0.6 …
According to the Airports Council International (ACI) statistics for the year 2008; The volume of global air traffic is 4.874 billion passengers, and the number of flights is 77 million flights, which resulted in, according to the statistics of the International Air Transport Association (IATA), 109 aviation accidents and 502 deaths, at a rate of one for every 1.9 million flights, and given that more than 70% of aviation accidents occur result of human factors; Therefore, attention comes to human factors as an axis to enhance safety, including influences such as natural, psychological, behavioral, cultural, experience and operating conditions.
ICAO Aviation Safety Programs
One of the most important goals of the International Civil Aviation Organization “ICAO” is to enhance the safety of civil aviation, in order to activate the Chicago Convention on Civil Aviation in 1944, which is like the constitution of civil aviation, and whose membership includes 189 countries, and Egypt is a founding member of it … The annexes and documents of the Chicago Convention are considered in their mandatory form and recommendations Basic tributaries to enhance the safety of civil aviation, from which international air safety audit programs emerged.
It is not exclusive. Among the most important safety appendices are:
– Appendix No. 1 (Personnel Licensing), which confirms the professional qualification and license for aviation workers.
– And Appendix No. 6 (Aircraft Operations) requires the establishment of an accident prevention and aviation safety program
– And Appendix No. 11 (Air Traffic Services) requires the establishment of an Air Traffic Services Safety Management Program
– And Appendix No. 13 (Investigation of Accidents) requires an investigation and analysis of accidents and incidents and the exchange of safety information
– And Appendix No. 14 (Airports) includes details of the design and operation of airports and the activation of the air safety management system
As well as training and audit documents No. 9376 (Dangerous Goods Transportation Training Program), No. 9760 (Air Communications Manual), No. 9683 (Human Factors Training Manual), No. 9735 (Safety Audit Manual), No. 9806 (Human Factors Safety Audit Manual) , No. 9756 (Aircraft Incidents and Accidents Investigation Manual), No. 7192 (Aircraft Crew Safety Training).
In 1995, ICAO issued Document No. 9422 under the name (Prevention of Accidents), which is 360 pages long and includes twenty chapters dealing with responsibilities and programs for accident prevention, the concept of safety and risk management, incident reports, flight data analysis, and airline safety inspections. managing information, analyzing, studying and surveying safety results, exchanging information and inspecting accident prevention measures in airlines, airports, aircraft, air control centers, maintenance stations and workshops, preparing and activating emergency plans, and Chapter Nineteen concerned programs, procedures and systems for safety and accident prevention at airports.
With the expectation of an increase in air traffic, the responsibility of the civil aviation community to reduce accidents and incidents increases, by following preventive measures through legal, regulatory and procedural frameworks. Going beyond traditional concepts and methods that depend on reaction methods, the air transport industry is keen to enhance safety management systems, spread a safety culture, encourage communication and exchange of experiences, follow standard operating procedures, enhance the voluntary reporting environment, establish systems for collecting and analyzing aviation data, and audit safety operations Airlines, adopting scientific methods in risk management, studying the causes and results of accidents and incidents, and providing comprehensive training programs that include the role and importance of human factors.
ICAO cooperates and coordinates to enhance air safety with countries, organizations and unions, for example, but not limited to: civil aviation authorities, aircraft manufacturers and operators, the International Air Transport Association, the International Airports Council …
In view of the interest of the International Bank Group (IFC) in airport projects; On April 30, 2007, the group issued a technical reference for environment, occupational health and safety
For airport projects financed or in which the Bank or its members participate, he referred to the importance of occupational safety, and the group believes that occupational safety should be included in the broad concept of the airport safety management system in line with what came in ICAO Document No. 9422 for the prevention of accidents.
The Bank Group document referred to issues related to occupational health and safety at airports, such as noise risks and physical, chemical, biological and radiological risks. ground services suppliers.
International occupational safety programmes
The International Labor Organization was established on April 21, 1919 and is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. It signed a memorandum of understanding with the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) since 1953. It won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1969. It has a unique tripartite structure that makes all decisions taken by its bodies decisions that represent the views of the stakeholders. Businesses, workers, and governments, and depend on a basic constitutional pillar, which is that a just and lasting peace can only be achieved if it is based on social justice.
It formulates policies and programs to advance basic human rights, improve working and living conditions, and increase employment opportunities. It establishes international standards in these fields and monitors their implementation locally. It undertakes a broad program of technical cooperation to help countries put their policies into effective implementation. It identified many of the hallmarks of an industrial society, such as eight-hour working hours, employment policies, occupational safety and health in the workplace, and sound industrial relations.
And in the celebration of the Labor Organization on the twenty-first of April 2009, the ninetieth anniversary of its founding; The organization raised the slogan: ‘Ninety years of work to achieve social justice’, and the organization established in 1959 the International Center for Occupational Safety and Health Information (CIC), and the world celebrates on the twenty-eighth of April every year the International Day for Occupational Health and Safety. This year’s celebration came under the slogan ‘Health and life at work is a basic human right’.
Juan Somavia, Director General of the International Labor Organization, says: “All those concerned must be vigilant in not allowing the measures taken for economic adjustment and recovery to follow paths that can degrade the worker’s status and humanity, or lead to a threat to his life in the workplace.”
And Dr. Samira Al-Tuwaijri, Director of the Occupational Health, Safety and Environment Department at the International Labor Organization, says
: ‘What the organization seeks to promote is a culture of health and safety in order to be at the level of workplaces, and to give people motivation and encouragement with regard to occupational health and safety and to be responsible for their safety in addition to the responsibility of governments and employers’.
According to the estimates of the International Labor Organization, there are about 2.3 million men and women who die annually due to a work-related cause, whether this cause is accidents or diseases, and there are 160 million people in the world who suffer from diseases associated with work. These diseases lead, in a third of cases, to a loss of four working days or more in each case. As for work accidents worldwide, both fatal and non-fatal, they are estimated at about 270 million accidents annually.
First: definitions in general
ICAO: International Civil Aviation Organization.
Chicago Convention: The Convention on International Civil Aviation signed in Chicago on December 7, 1944, and legally ratified.
Chicago Convention Appendices: They are the appendices to the Chicago Convention established and issued by the Council of the International Civil Aviation Organization, which include standard rules and recommended working methods.
Aircraft (Airplane): Any machine that can derive its survival in the air from the reactions of the air, which are not reflected from the surface of the earth, and includes all air vehicles such as fixed-wing aircraft, helicopters, gliders, airships, balloons, and so on.
Investor/Operator: A person or a public or private legal entity who works or offers to work in operating aircraft directly or leasing them to others.
Air Carrier: Any person or legal entity, public or private, that operates a line or airlines for the transport of passengers, mail and goods or any of them.
Air Operator Certificate: A certificate authorizing an investor to carry out specific operations in commercial air transport.
Civil Aircraft: Any civil aircraft registered in the Civil Aircraft Register in the State or in any other country in this capacity.
Air Traffic: All aircraft flying in the air or operating in the maneuvering area of the airport.
Airport: A specific area on the surface of land or water, including buildings, installations and equipment designated wholly or partly for the use of aircraft upon arrival or departure or during its movement on the surface.
International Airport: An airport designated by the Corporation in the territory of the State for the entry and exit of international air traffic, and in which procedures related to customs, immigration, public health, quarantine (including the quarantine of animals and plants) and other similar procedures are taken.
Aerodrome maneuvering area: That part of the aerodrome used for aircraft take-off, landing and other movements on the runways, and does not include aircraft parking aprons.
Forbidden area: An airspace of specific dimensions located within the territory of the State declared by the competent authorities and in which flying is prohibited.
Restricted Area: An airspace of specific dimensions located within the territory of the State in which flying is restricted under certain conditions.
Dangerous Area: An airspace of specific dimensions located within the territory of the State, within which there are operations dangerous to aviation at certain times, announced by the Civil Aviation Authority.
Restricted area (at the airport): A designated area at the airport, to which entry and roaming are not permitted except for those authorized to do so by
Civil Aviation Authority.
Aviation License: A general approval issued by the Corporation, which includes detailed regulatory terms and conditions, according to which the operator of the aircraft or the air carrier is allowed to carry out air operations, within the framework of the activity specified for that, during a specific period of time, and the cases of its suspension or cancellation are specified.
Airport traffic: the movement of aircraft and ground vehicles in the maneuvering area of the airport and of all aircraft flying in the area close to the airport.
Operating commercial air transport: Operating an aircraft to transport passengers, goods or mail in return for a reward or wage.
Aerial Work: An air operation carried out by an aircraft used for specialized services such as agriculture, construction, photography, surveying, reconnaissance, patrols, search and rescue, air advertising, and the like.
General Aviation Operation: Operation of an aircraft for a purpose other than commercial air transport or air business.
Dangerous Goods or Materials: Goods or materials that may pose a threat to health, safety, property or the environment and are listed in the list of dangerous goods in the technical instructions issued by ICAO or classified according to those instructions.
. Civil Aviation Facilities: The Civil Aviation Authority’s facilities usually consist of:
A – Civil Aviation Authority building B – Airports
a. Civil Aviation Authority building: It contains at least the following departments:
1. Aviation Safety Standards Department. 2. Director General of the Civil Aviation Authority. 3. Other departments as needed.
1. Aviation Safety Standards Department:
The Aviation Safety Standards Department bears overall responsibility for activities related to safety control in the Civil Aviation Authority, and it is the first technical department responsible for implementing the technical policy related to personnel leave, flight operations, and aircraft airworthiness. Accordingly, it is also responsible for the harmonization of operating systems and coordination between the different departments responsible for the implementation of national and international rules.
In some countries, the aviation medicine unit is attached to the personnel leave department. However, some other countries have found it necessary to establish a separate section responsible for aviation medicine within the Aviation Safety Standards Department, working in great coordination with the Personnel Permits Section.
2. Director General of the Civil Aviation Authority
Airworthiness of aircraft
Branches and divisions upon request
The organizational structure of the Civil Aviation Authority shown in the figure is a general structure that emphasizes the importance of the activities of countries in the field of safety oversight, and it can be adapted to suit the needs of any country. The example confirms that the three major branches of the Safety Measurement Department that fall within the current scope of the ICAO Safety Oversight Programme, that the organizational structure depends on the size and complexity of the aviation industry in the country.
3. Other departments as needed:
The presence of other departments in the Civil Aviation Authority depends on the size and complexity of the aviation industry in the country.
Airport management, air services management, navigation services management,,, etc.
B- Airport: An airport is a defined area on the surface of land or water, including buildings, installations and equipment designated wholly or partially for the use of aircraft upon arrival or departure or during its movement on the surface.
Runway / runway – corridor – parking apron – control tower – air control center – meteorology
(Equipment and installations should not be set up on the runway strip or the safety area at the end of the runway, or on a clear road, which threatens the aircraft in the air).
. Civil aviation equipment
1. Equipment for removing broken down aircraft 2. Rescue and firefighting 3. Devices and equipment for melting and removing snow and ice 4. Indicators and signaling devices 5. Wind direction indicators 6. Landing direction indicator
7. Signal lamp indicator
* Indicators and signaling devices:
Wind direction indicators.
– Indication of the direction of descent: in the form of the letter T
– Signal lamp indicator: It should be able to emit red, green and white signals.
Sign boards and signal area.
Markings: The ground markings on the runway shall be white, and the taxiways, turning areas and aircraft parking areas shall be yellow.
Landmarks for the direction of the runway.
Ground markings for thresholds.
Aiming point mark: placed at both ends of the approach to the runway.
Landmarks for aircraft parking lots.
– Safety lines in aircraft parking lots: Lines specifying the wing tip clearance distance.
Tags indicating information.
A group of approach lights.
Inaccurate approach runways.
– Accurate approach runways of the first, second and third categories.
Runway edge lights.
Runway threshold lights.
– Runway axis lights and walkways.
– The lights of the contact area on the runway.
– Airport beacon: If the low visibility occurs frequently, ground terrain, many surrounding lights.
– Electrical systems for air navigation equipment.
* Visual and navigation aids/radar – operational services, equipment and installations at airports
– Equipment to reduce the notification of birds
– Systems for directing and controlling movements on the ground, securing means of communication with equipment and vehicles with the tower. Vehicles must be operated in the following places:
1. In the maneuvering area as authorized by the control tower at the airport.
2. In the aircraft parking lot, as authorized by the competent authority.
IIV. Aircraft Accidents Investigation Committee Equipment: